kalnoy/nestedset

Nested Set Model for Laravel 4

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Language: PHP

v2.4.4 2015-06-23 11:04 UTC

README

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This is a Laravel 4-5 package for working with trees in a database.

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Contents:

What are nested sets?

Nested sets or Nested Set Model is a way to effectively store hierarchical data in a relational table. From wikipedia:

The nested set model is to number the nodes according to a tree traversal, which visits each node twice, assigning numbers in the order of visiting, and at both visits. This leaves two numbers for each node, which are stored as two attributes. Querying becomes inexpensive: hierarchy membership can be tested by comparing these numbers. Updating requires renumbering and is therefore expensive.

Applications

NSM shows good performance when tree is updated rarely. It is tuned to be fast for getting related nodes. It'is ideally suited for building multi-depth menu or categories for shop.

Documentation

Suppose that we have a model Category; a $node variable is an instance of that model and the node that we are manipulating. It can be a fresh model or one from database.

Relationships

Node has two predefined relationships: parent and children. They are fully functional, except for Laravel's has due to limitations of the framework. You can use hasChildren or hasParent to apply constraints:

$items = Category::hasChildren()->get();

Inserting nodes

Moving and inserting nodes includes several database queries, so transaction is automatically started when node is saved. It is safe to use global transaction if you work with several models.

Another important note is that structural manipulations are deferred until you hit save on model (some methods implicitly call save and return boolean result of the operation).

If model is successfully saved it doesn't mean that node has moved. If your application depends on whether the node has actually changed its position, use hasMoved method:

if ($node->save())
{
    $moved = $node->hasMoved();
}
Creating a new node

When you just create a node, it will be appended to the end of the tree:

Category::create($attributes);

In this case the node is considered a root which means that it doesn't have a parent.

Making a root from existing node
// #1 Implicit save
$node->saveAsRoot();

// #2 Explicit save
$node->makeRoot()->save();

The node will be appended to the end of the tree.

Appending and prepending to the specified parent

If you want to make node a child of other node, you can make it last or first child.

In following examples, $parent is some existing node.

There are few ways to append a node:

// #1 Using deferred insert
$node->appendTo($parent)->save();

// #2 Using parent node
$parent->append($node);

// #3 Using parent's children relationship
$parent->children()->create($attributes);

// #5 Using node's parent relationship
$node->parent()->associate($parent)->save();

// #6 Using the parent attribute
$node->parent_id = $parent->id;
$node->save();

// #7 Using static method
Category::create($attributes, $parent);

And only a couple ways to prepend:

// #1
$node->prependTo($parent)->save();

// #2
$parent->prepend($node);
Inserting before or after specified node

You can make $node to be a neighbor of the $neighbor node using following methods:

Neighbor is existing node, target node can be fresh. If target node is exists, it will be moved to the new position and parent will be changed if it's needed.

# Explicit save
$node->after($neighbor)->save();
$node->before($neighbor)->save();

# Implicit save
$node->insertAfter($neighbor);
$node->insertBefore($neighbor);
Shifting a node

To shift node up or down inside parent:

$bool = $node->down();
$bool = $node->up();

// Shift node by 3 siblings
$bool = $node->down(3);

The result of the operation is boolean value of whether the node has changed the position.

Building a tree from array

When using static method create on node, it checks whether attributes contains children key. If it does, it creates more nodes recursively.

$node = Category::create([
    'name' => 'Foo',

    'children' => [
        [
            'name' => 'Bar',

            'children' => [
                [ 'name' => 'Baz' ],
            ],
        ],
    ],
]);

$node->children now contains a list of created child nodes.

Retrieving nodes

In some cases we will use an $id variable which is an id of the target node.

Ancestors
// #1 Using accessor
$result = $node->getAncestors();

// #2 Using a query 
$result = $node->ancestors()->get();

// #3 Getting ancestors by id of the node
$result = Category::ancestorsOf($id);
Descendants
// #1 Using accessor
$result = $node->getDescendants();

// #2 Using a query 
$result = $node->descendants()->get();

// #3 Getting ancestors by id of the node
$result = Category::descendantsOf($id);
Siblings
$result = $node->getSiblings();

$result = $node->siblings()->get();

To get just next siblings (default order is applied here):

// Get a sibling that is immediately after the node
$result = $node->getNextSibling();

// Get all siblings that are after the node 
$result = $node->getNextSiblings();

// Get all siblings using a query
$result = $node->nextSiblings()->get();

To get previous siblings (reversed order is applied):

// Get a sibling that is immediately before the node
$result = $node->getPrevSibling();

// Get all siblings that are before the node 
$result = $node->getPrevSiblings();

// Get all siblings using a query
$result = $node->prevSiblings()->get();
Getting related models from other table

Imagine that each category has many goods. I.e. HasMany relationship is established. How can you get all goods of $category and every its descendant? Easy!

// Get ids of descendants
$categories = $category->descendants()->lists('id');

// Include the id of category itself
$categories[] = $category->getKey();

// Get goods
$goods = Goods::whereIn('category_id', $categories)->get();

Deleting nodes

To delete a node:

$node->delete();

Nodes are required to be deleted as models, don't try do delete them using a query like so:

Category::where('id', '=', $id)->delete();

This will brake the tree!

SoftDeletes trait is supported, also on model level.

Collection extension

This package provides few helpful methods for collection of nodes. You can link nodes in plain collection like so:

$result = Categories::get();

$results->linkNodes();

This will fill parent and children relations on every node so you can iterate over them without extra database requests.

To convert plain collection to tree:

$tree = $results->toTree();

$tree will contain only root nodes and to access children you can use children relation.

Query builder extension

This packages extends default query builder to introduce few helpful features.

Including node depth

If you need to know at which level the node is:

$result = Category::withDepth()->find($id);

$depth = $result->depth;

Root node will be at level 0. Children of root nodes will have a level of 1, etc.

To get nodes of specified level, you can apply having constraint:

$result = Category::withDepth()->having('depth', '=', 1)->get();
Default order

Each node has it's own unique _lft value that determines its position in the tree. If you want node to be ordered by this value, you can use defaultOrder method on the query builder:

// All nodes will now be ordered by lft value
$result = Category::defaultOrder()->get();

You can get nodes in reversed order:

$result = Category::reversed()->get();
Constraints

Various constraints that can be applied to the query builder:

  • whereIsRoot() to get only root nodes;
  • hasChildren() to get nodes that have children;
  • hasParent() to get non-root nodes;
  • whereIsAfter($id) to get every node (not just siblings) that are after a node with specified id;
  • whereIsBefore($id) to get every node that is before a node with specified id.

Descendants constraints:

$result = Category::whereDescendantOf($node)->get();
$result = Category::whereDescendantOf($node)->get();
$result = Category::whereNotDescendantOf($node)->get();
$result = Category::orWhereDescendantOf($node)->get();
$result = Category::orWhereNotDescendantOf($node)->get();

Ancestor constraints:

$result = Category::whereAncestorOf($node)->get();

$node can be either a primary key of the model or model instance.

Node methods

Compute the number of descendants:

$node->getDescendantCount();

To check if node is a descendant of other node:

$bool = $node->isDescendantOf($parent);

To check whether the node is root:

$bool = $node->isRoot();

Other checks:

  • $node->isChildOf($other);
  • $node->isAncestorOf($other);
  • $node->isSiblingOf($other);

Checking consistency

You can check whether a tree is broken (i.e. has some structural errors):

$bool = Category::isBroken();

It is possible to get error statistics:

$data = Category::countErrors();

It will return an array with following keys:

  • oddness -- the number of nodes that have wrong set of lft and rgt values;
  • duplicates -- the number of nodes that have same lft or rgt values;
  • wrong_parent -- the number of nodes that have invalid parent_id value that doesn't correspond to lft and rgt values.

Requirements

  • PHP >= 5.4
  • Laravel >= 4.1

Models are extended from new base class rather than Eloquent, so it's not possible to use another framework that overrides Eloquent.

It is highly suggested to use database that supports transactions (like MySql's InnoDb) to secure a tree from possible corruption.

Installation

To install the package, in terminal:

composer require kalnoy/nestedset

Adding required columns

You can use a method to add needed columns with default names:

Schema::create('table', function (Blueprint $table)
{
    ...
    NestedSet::columns($table);
});

To drop columns:

Schema::table('table', function (Blueprint $table)
{
    NestedSet::dropColumns($table);
});

If, for some reasons, you want to init everything by yourself, this is preferred schema:

$table->unsignedInteger('_lft');
$table->unsignedInteger('_rgt');
$table->unsignedInteger('parent_id')->nullable();

$table->index([ '_lft', '_rgt', 'parent_id' ]);

The model

Your model is now extended from Kalnoy\Nestedset\Node class, not Eloquent:

class Foo extends Kalnoy\Nestedset\Node {

}

Copyright (c) 2014 Alexander Kalnoy

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.