jeremykendall/php-domain-parser

Public Suffix List based URL parsing implemented in PHP.

5.2.0 2018-02-23 10:40 UTC

README

PHP Domain Parser is a Public Suffix List based domain parser implemented in PHP.

Build Status Total Downloads Latest Stable Version Software License

Motivation

While there are plenty of excellent URL parsers and builders available, there are very few projects that can accurately parse a url into its component subdomain, registrable domain, and public suffix parts.

Consider the domain www.pref.okinawa.jp. In this domain, the public suffix portion is okinawa.jp, the registrable domain is pref.okinawa.jp, and the subdomain is www. You can't regex that.

PHP Domain Parser is built around accurate Public Suffix List based parsing. For URL parsing, building or manipulation please refer to libraries focused on those area of development.

System Requirements

You need:

  • PHP >= 7.0 but the latest stable version of PHP is recommended
  • the intl extension

Dependencies

Installation

$ composer require jeremykendall/php-domain-parser

Usage

Parsing a domain name.

<?php

use Pdp\Cache;
use Pdp\CurlHttpClient;
use Pdp\Manager;

$manager = new Manager(new Cache(), new CurlHttpClient());
$rules = $manager->getRules(); //$rules is a Pdp\Rules object

$domain = $rules->resolve('www.ulb.ac.be');
echo json_encode($domain, JSON_PRETTY_PRINT);
// returns
//  {
//      "domain": "www.ulb.ac.be",
//      "registrableDomain": "ulb.ac.be",
//      "subDomain": "www",
//      "publicSuffix": "ac.be",
//      "isKnown": true,
//      "isICANN": true,
//      "isPrivate": false
//  }

$publicSuffix = $rules->getPublicSuffix('www.ulb.ac.be');
echo json_encode($publicSuffix, JSON_PRETTY_PRINT);
// returns
//  {
//      "publicSuffix": "ac.be",
//      "isKnown": true,
//      "isICANN": true,
//      "isPrivate": false
//  }

Using the above code you can parse and get public suffix informations about any valid domain name.

Manipulating the domain name

The Pdp\Domain returned by the Pdp\Rules::resolve method is an immutable value object representing a valid domain name. This object let's you access all the domain name properties as well as the public suffix informations attached to it using the following methods.

public function Domain::getLabel(int $key): ?string
public function Domain::keys(?string $label): int[]
public function Domain::getContent(): ?string
public function Domain::getPublicSuffix(): ?string
public function Domain::getRegistrableDomain(): ?string
public function Domain::getSubDomain(); ?string
public function Domain::isResolvable(): bool;
public function Domain::isKnown(): bool;
public function Domain::isICANN(): bool;
public function Domain::isPrivate(): bool;

The getter methods returns normalized and lowercased domain labels or null if no value was found for a particular domain part.

The Pdp\Domain object also implements PHP's Countable and IteratorAggregate interfaces to ease counting and iterating over the domain labels as well as PHP's JsonSerializable interfaces to output a JSON array with all the useful informations regarding the domain name.

Once you have a Pdp\Domain object can also modify its content using the following methods:

public function Domain::toAscii(): self
public function Domain::toUnicode(): self
public function Domain::withPublicSuffix($publicSuffix): self
public function Domain::withSubDomain($subDomain): self
public function Domain::withLabel(int $key, $label): self
public function Domain::withoutLabel(int $key): self
public function Domain::resolve($publicSuffix): self

Because the Pdp\Domain object is immutable:

  • If the method change any of the current object property, a new object is returned.
  • If a modification is not possible a Pdp\Exception exception is thrown.
$manager = new Manager(new Cache(), new CurlHttpClient());
$rules = $manager->getRules();
$domain = $rules->resolve('www.bbc.co.uk');
$newDomain = $domain
    ->withPublicSuffix('com')
    ->withSubDomain('shop')
    ->withLabel(-2, 'example')
;
$newDomain->getContent(); //returns shop.example.com;
$newDomain->isKnown(); //return false;

WARNING: in the example above the PSL info are lost because the newly attached public suffix had none.

To avoid this data loss you should use an already resolved public suffix.

$manager = new Manager(new Cache(), new CurlHttpClient());
$rules = $manager->getRules();
$domain = $rules->resolve('www.bbc.co.uk');
$newPublicSuffix = $rules->getPublicSuffix('example.com');
$newDomain = $domain
    ->withPublicSuffix($newPublicSuffix)
    ->withSubDomain('shop')
    ->withLabel(-2, 'example')
;
$newDomain->getContent(); //returns shop.example.com;
$newDomain->isKnown(); //return true;

Getting the domain public suffix information.

The Pdp\Rules object is responsible for public suffix resolution for a given domain. Public suffix resolution is done using the Pdp\Rules::resolve or Pdp\Rules::getPublicSuffix methods which expects at most two parameters:

  • $domain a domain name as a string
  • $section a string which specifies which section of the PSL you want to validate the given domain against. The possible values are:
    • Rules::ICANN_DOMAINS, to validate against the PSL ICANN DOMAINS section only.
    • Rules::PRIVATE_DOMAINS, to validate against the PSL PRIVATE DOMAINS section only.
    • the empty string to validate against all the PSL sections.

By default, the $section argument is equal to the empty string. If an unsupported section is submitted a Pdp\Exception exception will be thrown.

While the Pdp\Rules::resolve returns a Pdp\Domain object, the Pdp\Rules::getPublicSuffix returns a Pdp\PublicSuffix object.

THIS EXAMPLE ILLUSTRATES HOW THE OBJECT WORK BUT SHOULD BE AVOIDED IN PRODUCTON

<?php

use Pdp\Rules;
use Pdp\Converter;

$pdp_url = 'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/publicsuffix/list/master/public_suffix_list.dat';
$rules = Rules::createFromPath($pdp_url);

$domain = $rules->resolve('www.Ulb.AC.be'); // resolution is done against all the sections available
echo json_encode($domain, JSON_PRETTY_PRINT);
// returns
//  {
//      "domain": "www.ulb.ac.be",
//      "registrableDomain": "ulb.ac.be",
//      "subDomain": "www",
//      "publicSuffix": "ac.be",
//      "isKnown": true,
//      "isICANN": true,
//      "isPrivate": false
//  }

//The same domain will yield a different result using the PSL PRIVATE DOMAIN SECTION only

$domain = $rules->resolve('www.Ulb.AC.be', Rules::PRIVATE_DOMAINS);
echo json_encode($domain, JSON_PRETTY_PRINT);
// returns
//  {
//      "domain": "www.ulb.ac.be",
//      "registrableDomain": "ac.be",
//      "subDomain": "www.ulb",
//      "publicSuffix": "be",
//      "isKnown": false,
//      "isICANN": false,
//      "isPrivate": false
//  }

The domain public suffix status depends on the PSL section used to resolve it:

  • Pdp\Domain::isKnown returns true if the public suffix is found in the selected PSL;
  • Pdp\Domain::isICANN returns true if the public suffix is found using a PSL which includes the ICANN DOMAINS section;
  • Pdp\Domain::isPrivate returns true if the public suffix is found using a PSL which includes the PRIVATE DOMAINS section;

WARNING:

You should never use the library this way in production, without, at least, a caching mechanism to reduce PSL downloads.

Using the PSL to determine what is a valid domain name and what isn't is dangerous, particularly in these days where new gTLDs are arriving at a rapid pace. The DNS is the proper source for this information. If you must use this library for this purpose, please consider integrating a PSL update mechanism into your software.

Public Suffix List Maintenance

The library comes bundle with a service which enables resolving domain name without the constant network overhead of continously downloading the PSL. The Pdp\Manager class retrieves, converts and caches the PSL as well as creates the corresponding Pdp\Rules object on demand. It internally uses a Pdp\Converter object to convert the fetched PSL into its array representation when required.

<?php

namespace Pdp;

use Psr\SimpleCache\CacheInterface;

final class Manager
{
    const PSL_URL = 'https://publicsuffix.org/list/public_suffix_list.dat';
    public function __construct(CacheInterface $cache, HttpClient $http)
    public function getRules(string $source_url = self::PSL_URL): Rules
    public function refreshRules(string $source_url = self::PSL_URL): bool
}

Instantiate Pdp\Manager

To work as intended, the Pdp\Manager constructor requires:

  • a PSR-16 Cache object to store the rules locally.

  • a Pdp\HttpClient object to retrieve the PSL.

The Pdp\HttpClient is a simple interface which exposes the HttpClient::getContent method. This method expects a string URL representation has its sole argument and returns the body from the given URL resource as a string.
If an error occurs while retrieving such body a HttpClientException exception is thrown.

<?php

namespace Pdp;

interface HttpClient
{
    /**
     * Returns the content fetched from a given URL.
     *
     * @param string $url
     *
     * @throws HttpClientException If an errors occurs while fetching the content from a given URL
     *
     * @return string Retrieved content
     */
    public function getContent(string $url): string;
}

The package comes bundle with:

  • a file cache PSR-16 implementation based on the excellent FileCache which caches the local copy for a maximum of 7 days.
  • a HTTP client based on the cURL extension.

Refreshing the cached PSL

<?php

public Manager::refreshRules(string $source_url = self::PSL_URL): bool

The Pdp\Manager::refreshRules method enables refreshing your local copy of the PSL stored with your PSR-16 Cache and retrieved using the Http Client. By default the method will use the Manager::PSL_URL as the source URL but you are free to substitute this URL with your own.
The method returns a boolean value which is true on success.

<?php

use Pdp\Cache;
use Pdp\CurlHttpClient;
use Pdp\Manager;

$manager = new Manager(new Cache(), new CurlHttpClient());
$retval = $manager->refreshRules('https://publicsuffix.org/list/public_suffix_list.dat');
if ($retval) {
    //the local cache has been updated
} else {
    //the local cache was not updated
}

Returning a Pdp\Rules object

<?php

public Manager::getRules(string $source_url = self::PSL_URL): Rules

This method returns a Rules object which is instantiated with the PSL rules.

The method takes an optional $source_url argument which specifies the PSL source URL. If no local cache exists for the submitted source URL, the method will:

  1. call Manager::refreshRules with the given URL to update its local cache
  2. instantiate the Rules object with the newly cached data.

On error, the method throws an Pdp\Exception.

THIS IS THE RECOMMENDED WAY OF USING THE LIBRARY

<?php

use Pdp\Cache;
use Pdp\CurlHttpClient;
use Pdp\Manager;

$manager = new Manager(new Cache(), new CurlHttpClient());
$rules = $manager->getRules('https://raw.githubusercontent.com/publicsuffix/list/master/public_suffix_list.dat');
$domain = $rules->resolve('www.ulb.ac.be');
echo json_encode($domain, JSON_PRETTY_PRINT);
// returns
//  {
//      "domain": "www.ulb.ac.be",
//      "registrableDomain": "ulb.ac.be",
//      "subDomain": "www",
//      "publicSuffix": "ac.be",
//      "isKnown": true,
//      "isICANN": true,
//      "isPrivate": false
//  }

Automatic Updates

It is important to always have an up to date PSL. In order to do so the library comes bundle with an auto-update script located in the bin directory.

$ php ./bin/update-psl

This script requires:

  • The PHP curl extension
  • The Pdp\Installer class which organizes how to update the cache.
  • The Pdp\Cache and Pdp\CurlHttpClient classes to retrieve and cache the PSL

You can also add a composer script in your composer.json file to update the PSL cache everytime after the install or the update command are executed.

{
    "scripts": {
        "post-install-cmd": "\\Pdp\\Installer::updateLocalCache",
        "post-update-cmd": "\\Pdp\\Installer::updateLocalCache"
    }
}

If you prefer using your own implementations you should:

  1. Copy the Pdp\Installer class
  2. Adapt its code to reflect your requirements.

In any case, your are required to update regularly your PSL information with your chosen script to keep your data up to date.

For example, below I'm using the Manager with

Of course you can add more setups depending on your usage.

Be sure to adapt the following code to your own framework/situation. The following code is given as an example without warranty of it working out of the box.

<?php

use GuzzleHttp\Client as GuzzleClient;
use Pdp\HttpClient;
use Pdp\HttpClientException;
use Pdp\Manager;
use Symfony\Component\Cache\Simple\PDOCache;

final class GuzzleHttpClientAdapter implements HttpClient
{
    private $client;

    public function __construct(GuzzleClient $client)
    {
        $this->client = $client;
    }

    public function getContent(string $url): string
    {
        try {
            return $client->get($url)->getBody()->getContents();
        } catch (Throwable $e) {
            throw new HttpClientException($e->getMessage(), $e->getCode(), $e);
        }
    }
}

$dbh = new PDO('mysql:dbname=testdb;host=127.0.0.1', 'dbuser', 'dbpass');
$symfonyCache = new PDOCache($dbh, 'psl', 86400);
$guzzleAdapter = new GuzzleHttpClientAdapter(new GuzzleClient());
$manager = new Manager($symfonyCache, $guzzleAdapter);
$manager->refreshRules();
//the rules are saved to the database for 1 day
//the rules are fetched using GuzzlClient

$rules = $manager->getRules();
$domain = $rules->resolve('nl.shop.bébé.faketld');
$domain->getDomain();            //returns 'nl.shop.bébé.faketld'
$domain->getPublicSuffix();      //returns 'faketld'
$domain->getRegistrableDomain(); //returns 'bébé.faketld'
$domain->getSubDomain();         //returns 'nl.shop'
$domain->isKnown();              //returns false

Changelog

Please see CHANGELOG for more information about what has been changed since version 5.0.0 was released.

Contributing

Contributions are welcome and will be fully credited. Please see CONTRIBUTING for details.

Testing

pdp-domain-parser has:

  • a PHPUnit test suite
  • a coding style compliance test suite using PHP CS Fixer.
  • a code analysis compliance test suite using PHPStan.

To run the tests, run the following command from the project folder.

$ composer test

Security

If you discover any security related issues, please email nyamsprod@gmail.com instead of using the issue tracker.

Credits

License

The MIT License (MIT). Please see License File for more information.

Attribution

The HTTP adapter interface and the cURL HTTP adapter were inspired by (er, lifted from) Will Durand's excellent Geocoder project. His MIT license and copyright notice are below.

Copyright (c) 2011-2013 William Durand <william.durand1@gmail.com>

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished
to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all
copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
THE SOFTWARE.

Portions of the Pdp\Converter and Pdp\Rules are derivative works of the PHP registered-domain-libs. Those parts of this codebase are heavily commented, and I've included a copy of the Apache Software Foundation License 2.0 in this project.