Easy creation of slugs for your Eloquent models in Laravel

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3.0.0 2015-07-06 15:09 UTC


Easy creation of slugs for your Eloquent models in Laravel 5.

Build Status Total Downloads Latest Stable Version Latest Stable Version

NOTE If you are using Laravel 4, then use the 2.x branch or tagged 2.* releases. Currently, master is only tested against Laravel 5.*.

Background: What is a slug?

A slug is a simplified version of a string, typically URL-friendly. The act of "slugging" a string usually involves converting it to one case, and removing any non-URL-friendly characters (spaces, accented letters, ampersands, etc.). The resulting string can then be used as an indentifier for a particular resource.

For example, I have a blog with posts. I could refer to each post via the ID:

... but that's not particularly friendly (especially for SEO). You probably would prefer to use the post's title in the URL, but that becomes a problem if your post is titled "My Dinner With André & François", because this is pretty ugly too:

The solution is to create a slug for the title and use that instead. You might want to use Laravel's built-in Str::slug() method to convert that title into something friendlier:

A URL like that will make users happier (readable, easier to type, etc.).

For more information, you might want to read this description on Wikipedia.

Slugs tend to be unique as well. So if I wrote another post with the same title, I'd want to distinguish between them somehow, typically with an incremental counter added to the end of the slug:

This keeps URLs unique.

The Eloquent-Sluggable package for Laravel 5 will handle all of this for you automatically, with minimal configuration at the start.

Installation and Requirements

First, you'll need to require the package with Composer:

$ composer require cviebrock/eloquent-sluggable

NOTE: Eloquent-Sluggable now uses traits, so you will need to be running PHP 5.4 or higher. If you are still using 5.3, then use the "1.*" version and follow the instructions in that version's file.

Aftwards, run composer update from your command line.

Then, update config/app.php by adding an entry for the service provider.

'providers' => [
    // ...

Finally, from the command line again, run php artisan vendor:publish to publish the default configuration file.

Updating your Eloquent Models

Your models should implement Sluggable's interface and use it's trait. You should also define a protected property $sluggable with any model-specific configurations (see Configuration below for details):

use Cviebrock\EloquentSluggable\SluggableInterface;
use Cviebrock\EloquentSluggable\SluggableTrait;

class Post extends Model implements SluggableInterface
    use SluggableTrait;

    protected $sluggable = [
        'build_from' => 'title',
        'save_to'    => 'slug',


Of course, your database will need a column in which to store the slug. You can do this manually, or use the built-in artisan command to create a migration for you. For example:

php artisan sluggable:table posts

Running that command will create a migration that adds a column named "slug" to your posts table. If you want to use a different name for the slug column, you can provide that as a second argument:

php artisan sluggable:table posts slug_column

Be sure to set your model's save_to configuration to match the column name.

That's it ... your model is now "sluggable"!

Using the Class

Saving a model is easy:

$post = new Post([
    'title' => 'My Awesome Blog Post',


And so is retrieving the slug:

echo $post->slug;

// or, if you don't know the name of the slug attribute:
echo $post->getSlug();

Also note that if you are replicating your models using Eloquent's replicate() method, then you will need to explicity tell the package to force a re-slugging of the model afterwards to ensure uniqueness:

$new_post = $post->replicate()->resluggify();

See issue #37 if you want to use Eloquent-Sluggable with Eloquent but outside of Laravel.

There is also a handy helper in the trait for finding a model based on it's slug:

$post = Post::findBySlug('my-slug');

This is basically a wrapper for Post::where('slug-field','=','my-slug')->first().
If your slugs aren't unique, then use the getBySlug() method which will return an Eloquent collection.

You can also use the static method Post::createSlug('My First Post') to generate a slug for a given string, without actually creating or saving an associated model. This would be useful for Ajax-y controllers or the like, where you want to show a user what the unique slug would be for a given input, before actually creating a model.


Sluggable models will fire two Eloquent model events: "slugging" and "slugged".

The "slugging" event is fired just before the slug is generated. If the callback from this event returns false, then the slugging is not performed.

The "slugged" event is fired just after a slug is generated. It won't be called in the case where the model doesn't need slugging (as determined by the needsSlugging() method).

You can hook into either of these events just like any other Eloquent model event:

Post::registerModelEvent('slugging', function($post) {
    if ($post->someCondition()) {
        // the model won't be slugged
        return false;

Post::registerModelEvent('slugged', function($post) {
    Log::info('Post slugged: ' . $post->getSlug());


Configuration was designed to be as flexible as possible. You can set up defaults for all of your Eloquent models, and then override those settings for individual models.

By default, global configuration can be set in the app/config/sluggable.php file. If a configuration isn't set, then the package defaults from vendor/cviebrock/eloquent-sluggable/config/sluggable.php are used. Here is an example configuration, with all the default settings shown:

return [
    'build_from'      => null,
    'save_to'         => 'slug',
    'max_length'      => null,
    'method'          => null,
    'separator'       => '-',
    'unique'          => true,
    'include_trashed' => false,
    'on_update'       => false,
    'reserved'        => null,


This is the field or array of fields from which to build the slug. Each $model->field is concatenated (with space separation) to build the sluggable string. This can be model attributes (i.e. fields in the database) or custom getters. So, for example, this works:

class Person extends Eloquent implements SluggableInterface
    use SluggableTrait;

    protected $sluggable = [
        'build_from' => 'fullname',

    public function getFullnameAttribute() {
        return $this->firstname . ' ' . $this->lastname;

You can reference fields from related models using dot notation. For example, the slug for the following book will be generated from its author's name and the book's title:

class Book extends Eloquent implements SluggableInterface
    use SluggableTrait;

    protected $sluggable = [
        'build_from' => ['', 'title']

    protected $fillable = ['title'];

    public function author() {
        return $this->belongsTo('Author');
class Author extends Model
    protected $fillable = ['name'];

If build_from is empty, false or null, then the value of $model->__toString() is used.


The attribute field in your model where the slug is stored. By default, this is "slug". You need to create this column in your table when defining your schema:

Schema::create('posts', function ($table) {


Setting this to a positive integer will ensure that your generated slugs are restricted to a maximum length (e.g. to ensure that they fit within your databse fields). By default, this value is null and no limit is enforced.

Note: If unique is enabled (which it is by default), and you anticipate having several models with the same slug, then you should set this value to a few characters less than the length of your database field. The reason why is that the class will append "-1", "-2", "-3", etc., to subsequent models in order to maintain uniqueness. These incremental extensions aren't included in part of the max_length calculation.


Defines the method used to turn the sluggable string into a slug. There are three possible options for this configuration:

  1. When method is null (the default setting), the package uses Cocur/Slugify to create the slug.

  2. When method is a callable, then that function or class method is used. The function/method should expect two parameters: the string to process, and a separator string. For example, to duplicate the default behaviour, you could do:

    'method' => ['Illuminate\\Support\\Str', 'slug'],
  1. You can also define method as a closure (again, expecting two parameters):
    'method' => function ($string, $separator) {
        return strtolower(preg_replace('/[^a-z]+/i', $separator, $string));

Any other values for method will throw an exception.

For more complex slugging requirements, see Extending Sluggable below.


This defines the separator used when building a slug, and is passed to the method defined above. The default value is a hyphen.


This is a boolean defining whether slugs should be unique among all models of the given type. For example, if you have two blog posts and both are called "My Blog Post", then they will both sluggify to "my-blog-post" (when using Sluggable's default settings). This could be a problem, e.g. if you use the slug in URLs.

By turning unique on, then the second Post model will sluggify to "my-blog-post-1". If there is a third post with the same title, it will sluggify to "my-blog-post-2" and so on. Each subsequent model will get an incremental value appended to the end of the slug, ensuring uniqueness.


Setting this to true will also check deleted models when trying to enforce uniqueness. This only affects Eloquent models that are using the softDelete feature. Default is false, so soft-deleted models don't count when checking for uniqueness.


A boolean. If it is false (the default value), then slugs will not be updated if a model is resaved (e.g. if you change the title of your blog post, the slug will remain the same) or the slug value has already been set. You can set it to true (or manually change the $model->slug value in your own code) if you want to override this behaviour.

(If you want to manually set the slug value using your model's Sluggable settings, you can run $model->resluggify() to force Sluggable to update the slug field.)


An array of values that will never be allowed as slugs, e.g. to prevent collisions with existing routes or controller methods, etc.. This can be an array, or a closure that returns an array. Defaults to null: no reserved slug names.

Route-model Binding

To start retrieving Models using the slug or the ID, you can update /bootstrap/app.php by adding an entry to override the router. In the section titled Bind Important Interfaces, add the following:


If you prefer finding the models within your Controller, or the routes file, you can use a couple of helper methods:




Extending Sluggable

Sometimes the configuration options aren't sufficient for complex needs (e.g. maybe the uniqueness test needs to take other attributes into account, or maybe you need to make two slugs for the same model).

In instances like these, your best bet is to overload some of SluggableTrait's methods with your own functions, either on a per-model basis, or in your own trait that extends SluggableTrait. Each step of the slugging process is broken out into it's own method, and those are called in turn when the slug is generated.

Take a look at SluggableTrait->sluggify() to see the order of operations, but you might consider overloading any of the following protected methods:


Determines if the model needs to be slugged. Should return a boolean.


Returns a string that forms the source of the slug (usually based on the build_from configuration value).


The actual slugging code. Usually implements whatever is defined in the method configuration, but could call out to other slugging libraries. Takes the source string (above) and returns a string. If the source string is empty, then the slug field will be set to null.


Returns the default Cocur/Slugify() class (or any class that has a slugify() method. If you want to add custom rules to Slugify, this is where you can do it (see /tests/models/PostCustomEngine.php for an example).


Validates that the generated slug is valid, usually by checking it against anything defined in the reserved configuration. Should return a valid slug string.


Checks to see if the given slug is unique. Should return a unique slug string.

generateSuffix($slug, $list)

Takes the current slug and a list of "similar" slugs (e.g. "slug-1", "slug-2", etc.), and returns the next in the series. Usually just returns N+1 but could be modified to use random, or alphabetic suffixes instead of incrementing integers.


Returns all existing slugs that are "similar" to the given one. Should return an key-value array of existing slugs, where the values are the Eloquent model's slug values (from the save_to field) and the keys are the respective Eloquent model's ids.


Writes the (generated, valid, and unique) slug to the model's attributes.

Bugs, Suggestions and Contributions

Thanks to everyone who has contributed to this project!

Please use Github for bugs, comments, suggestions.

  1. Fork the project.
  2. Create your bugfix/feature branch and write your (well-commented) code.
  3. Create unit tests for your code:
    • Run composer install --dev in the root directory to install required testing packages.
    • Add your test methods to eloquent-sluggable/tests/SluggableTest.php.
    • Run vendor/bin/phpunit to the new (and all previous) tests and make sure everything passes.
  4. Commit your changes (and your tests) and push to your branch.
  5. Create a new pull request against the eloquent-sluggable master branch.

Please note that you must create your pull request against the master branch for fixes to the version compatible with Laravel 5. If you are working on Laravel 4 support, use the 2.x branch.

Copyright and License

Eloquent-Sluggable was written by Colin Viebrock and released under the MIT License. See the LICENSE file for details.

Copyright 2013 Colin Viebrock