yucca/yucca

simple multi-sources ORM for PHP 5.3

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Language: PHP

1.5.2 2014-08-29 07:59 UTC

README

Build Status

Doctrine and Propel are well known ORM, they are great for websites which doesn't need hard optimizations. But which ORM can you choose :

  • when you have a site that handle 500 concurrent connections ?
  • when you have sharded databases ?
  • when you have datas simultaneously in SQL DB (MySQL, PostgreSQL, ...) and NoSql (Mongo, Redis, Memcache, Neo4J, ...) ?

Philosophy

Yucca is designed to separate the PHP Model and the database Schema. Most of actual ORM maps strictly the design of a table to the object properties. But is it really logic ? Can't a model aggregate multiple tables ? And why an object should be mapped to a table and not simultaneously to multiple table or a table and a cache layer ?

That's the reasons that makes me create Yucca.

Model

A Yucca Model is an active record that is linked to one or more datasources. For example, if you have a user table designed like this:

id INT PRIMARY
login VARCHAR(255)
password CHAR(40)

and a user_params table (which can handle fields like facebook_id or site theme to use for example) designed like this:

id INT PRIMARY
user_id INT
param_name VARCHAR(40)
param_value TEXT

You can tell yucca that the model User has 2 different sources mapped: user and user_params

Each of these sources have one or more handlers: user source can read it's data from memcache and from a MySQL database. If memcache doesn't have datas, we check the next one (MySQL) and if it has datas, we bring them to memcache and after hydrate our model.

Actually, 2 handlers are given: memcache and DoctrineDbal

The DoctrineDbal handler use schema information to know which table read. Table information are for sharded tables. On huge systems, we can have for example 10 sharded tables representing the user. so for each shard we specify the connection to use. Yucca select the shard using the given shard strategy.

To summarize, we have to configure:

  • connections
  • schema
  • source
  • mapping

See more in the configuration section

Models are hydrated by a lazy loading system. This imply that getting an object with a given id doesn't make any call to the storage. The first call / connection will occur when getting or setting a property.

The model can only be accessed by it's id, which is the DB primary key (maybe an array of 2 or more fields), or the key in case of a Key/Value storage. By this way we can cache a row of data easily.

In case of reqesting a model by another field, we use Selectors and Iterators.

Selector

A selector is a way of retrieving models by another field than the id. But Selector doesn't retrieve datas, they only retrieve ids. So we can get model by their ids and use cache.

Iterator

An iterator use a selector to get Ids and a SINGLE model (by default) which is hydrated, to preserve memory.

Getting started

The recommended way to install Yucca is through composer. If you don't know this tool, please look at its documentation

Just create a composer.json file for your project, or update yours with this require statement:

{
    "require": {
        "yucca/yucca": "@stable"
    }
}

Protip: you should browse the yucca/yucca page to choose a stable version to use, avoid dev-master

And run these two commands to install it:

$ curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer | php
$ composer install

When using Symfony2, you just have to register the bundle in the AppKernel:

// app/AppKernel.php

public function registerbundles()
{
    $bundles = array(
        //...
        new Yucca\Bundle\YuccaBundle\YuccaBundle(),
        //...
    );
}

Protip: Yucca is mostly intended to be use with Symfony2 and it's dependency injection. If you are not using Symfony2, you'll have to emulate the Yucca Bundle feature to be run in your application. In addition you will have to require the composer autoloader:

<?php

require 'vendor/autoload.php';

Configuration

If you feel depressed when you look at this YAML configuration, feel free to look at the Commands section, and pay attention to the config generator command :)

Connection

#app/config/yucca.yml
yucca:
    #DB connections
    connections:
        default:
            type: doctrine
            options:
                driver:   %database_default_driver%
                host:     %database_default_host%
                port:     %database_default_port%
                dbname:   %database_default_name%
                user:     %database_default_user%
                password: %database_default_password%
                charset:  UTF8
        ip2location:
            type: doctrine
            options:
                driver:   %database_ip2location_driver%
                host:     %database_ip2location_host%
                port:     %database_ip2location_port%
                dbname:   %database_ip2location_name%
                user:     %database_ip2location_user%
                password: %database_ip2location_password%
                charset:  UTF8
        memcache_general:
            type: memcache
            options:
                prefix: %memcache_general_prefix%
                servers:
                    - {port: %memcache_general_port%, host: %memcache_general_host%}

You can add multiple DB connections. You have to specify the connection type and the options that will be given to the connection factory. As it use a factory, you can add your own.

Schema

#app/config/yucca.yml
yucca:
    #DB Schema
    schema:
        user:
            sharding_strategy: modulo
            shards:
                - default
        user_params:
            sharding_strategy: modulo
            shards:
                - default


        #Geographic tables
        dbip_lookup:
            sharding_strategy: modulo
            shards:
                - ip2location
        province:
            sharding_strategy: modulo
            shards:
                - default
        state:
            sharding_strategy: modulo
            shards:
                - default

Here you describe your schema, telling the sharding strategy to use and which connection to use for each shards

Sources

#app/config/yucca.yml
yucca:
    #Sources
    sources:
        province:
            default_params:
                fields: { id: 'identifier', code: ~, name: ~ , uppercase_name: ~ , slug: ~ , state_id: {type: 'object', class_name: 'MyProject\Model\State'}}
            handlers:
                -
                    type: database_single_row
                    table_name: province
        state:
            default_params:
                fields: { id: 'identifier', name: ~ , uppercase_name: ~ , slug: ~ }
            handlers:
                -
                    type: database_single_row
                    table_name: state
        user:
            default_params:
                fields: { id: 'identifier', created_at: {type: 'datetime'}, updated_at: {type: 'datetime'}, email: ~, password: ~, salt: ~ }
            handlers:
                -
                    type: database_single_row
                    table_name: user
        user_params:
            default_params:
                fields: {id: 'identifier', fbuid: ~, twitteruid: ~}
                name_field: param_name
                value_field: param_value
                mapping: {id: user_id}
            handlers:
                -
                    type: database_multiple_row
                    table_name: user_params

This is the section where you describe each "tables" : in default params you have to tell fields handled by this source and their respective types. You also set the handlers. Most of given tables use a database_single_row handler, and the table name to use. But for user_params, you have the database_multiple_row handler that automatically select multiple row having the matching user_id and make a match between the name_field and value_field, like explained in the Philosophy section

Mapping

#app/config/yucca.yml
yucca:
    #Mapping object / Sources
    mapping:
        MyProject\Model\Province:
            mapper_class_name:
            properties:
                state:
                    field: state_id
            sources:
                - province
        MyProject\Model\State:
            mapper_class_name: ~
            properties: ~
            sources:
                - state
        MyProject\Model\User:
            mapper_class_name: ~
            properties: ~
            sources:
                - user

Selectors

#app/config/yucca.yml
yucca:
    #Selectors
    selectors:
        MyProject\Selector\Province:
            sources:
                - database
        MyProject\Selector\State:
            sources:
                - database
        MyProject\Selector\User:
            sources:
                - database

        MyProject\Selector\DbIpLookup:
            sources:
                - database

Use case

In the following source code, I'll use Symfony2 and it's Dependency Injection container.

I've an id, I want to get the object

$user = $this->get('yucca.entity_manager')->load('YuccaDemo\\Model\\User', $user_id);

Note that in this case, no call to the underlying DBs are made.

I've an object, I want to know if it's records really exists

 try {
    $user->ensureExist();
} catch (\Yucca\Component\Source\Exception\NoDataException $e) {
    throw $e;
}

ensureExist loop upon each yucca managed properties and retrieve them from sources. If one is going to fail, then it throw the NoDataException

I've an object, I want to get / set properties

$login = $user->getLogin();
$user->setLogin($login);

If it's a new object, nothing is done, but if it's a loaded object, if it has not been hydrated yet, it's automatically hydrated when calling the get / set methods.

I've an object, I want to save it

$this->get('yucca.entity_manager')->save($user);

If it was a new object, then if the id is an autogenerated ID, it's given back to the object.

I've an object which aggregate 2 tables (or at least 2 sources)

#app/config/yucca.yml
yucca:
    #Mapping object / Sources
    mapping:
        MyProject\Model\User:
            mapper_class_name: ~
            properties: ~
            sources:
                - user
                - user_params

I've the email, and I want to get the user

    /**
     * @var $selector \MyProject\Selector\User
     */
    $selector = $this->container->get('yucca.selector_manager')->getSelector('MyProject\Selector\User');
    //Or maybe available through :
    //$this->container->get('yucca.entiity_manager')->getSelectorManager()->getSelector('MyProject\Selector\User');

    $selector->addEmailCriteria($email);

    switch($selector->count()) {
        case 1: {
            return $this->yuccaEntityManager->load('MyProject\Model\User',$selector->current());
        }
        case 0: {
            throw new \Exception('No user found');
        }
        default: {
            throw new \Exception('Multiple users found');
        }
    }
    //MyProject/Selector/User
    <?php
    namespace MyProject\Selector;

    use \Yucca\Component\Selector\SelectorAbstract;
    use Yucca\Component\Selector\Source\SelectorSourceInterface;

    /**
     *
     */
    class User extends SelectorAbstract {
        /**
         * @param null|\Yucca\Component\Selector\Source\SelectorSourceInterface $source
         */
        public function __construct(SelectorSourceInterface $source = null){
            parent::__construct($source);
            $this->options = array(
                SelectorSourceInterface::ID_FIELD => array('u.id'),
                SelectorSourceInterface::SHARDING_KEY_FIELD => null,
                SelectorSourceInterface::TABLE => array(
                    'user'=>array('alias'=>'u'),
                ),
                SelectorSourceInterface::SELECTOR_NAME => __CLASS__,
            );
        }

        /**
         * @param string $criteria
         * @return \MyProject\Selector\User
         */
        public function addEmailCriteria($criteria){
            $this->criterias['u.email'][] = $criteria;
            return $this;
        }
    }

I've the postcode, and I want to get users

    /**
     * @var $selector \MyProject\Selector\User
     */
    $selector = $this->container->get('yucca.selector_manager')->getSelector('MyProject\Selector\User');

    $selector->addPostCodeCriteria($postcode);

    /**
     * @var $iterator \Yucca\Component\Iterator\Iterator | \MyProject\Selector\User
     */
    $iterator = new \Yucca\Component\Iterator\Iterator(
        $selector,
        $this->container->get('yucca.entity_manager'),
        '\MyProject\Model\UserParameter'
    );

    foreach($iterator as $user) {
        var_dump($user->getPostcode());
    }

I've the name's first letter (user autocompletion field, for example), and I want to get users

    //MyProject/Selector/User
    ...

    use Yucca\Component\Selector\Expression;

    ...

    /**
     * @param $criteria
     * @return \MyProject\Selector\User
     */
    public function addDisplayNameLikeCriteria($criteria){
        $this->criterias['u.display_name'][] = new Expression(
            array(
                'database'=>'(u.display_name LIKE :display_name)'
            ),
            array(
                'display_name'=>$criteria
            ),
        );
    }
    ...

    //OR

    /**
     * @param $criteria
     * @return \MyProject\Selector\User
     */
    public function addDisplayNameLikeCriteria($criteria){
        $index = count($this->criterias['u.display_name']);
        $this->criterias['u.display_name'][] = new Expression(
            array(
                'database'=>'(u.display_name LIKE :display_name'.$index.')'
            ),
            array(
                'display_name'.$index =>$criteria
            ),
        );
    }

I want to memcache my user models

#app/config/yucca.yml
yucca:
    #Sources
    sources:
        user:
            default_params:
                fields: { id: 'identifier', created_at: {type: 'datetime'}, updated_at: {type: 'datetime'}, email: ~, password: ~, salt: ~ }
            handlers:
                -
                    type: memcache
                    connection_name: memcache
                -
                    type: database_single_row
                    table_name: user

I just retrieve my model from session

The goal of the below code is to set back in models the entityManager, selectorManager, and mappingManager

$session = $this->container->get('session');
$user = $session->get('user');

$this->container->get('yucca.entity_manager')->refresh($user);

My application has grown up, I want to shard some tables:

Read the Sharding documentation for master

Seems good, but I've a large database to migrate. How can I autogenerate config and models:

There is a bunch of existing commands. To know how you can pre generate your yaml and php files, read the Commands documentation for master