utopia-php/database

A simple library to manage application persistence using multiple database adapters

0.49.3 2024-04-23 02:17 UTC

This package is auto-updated.

Last update: 2024-04-23 02:20:30 UTC


README

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Utopia framework database library is simple and lite library for managing application persistency using multiple database adapters. This library is aiming to be as simple and easy to learn and use. This library is maintained by the Appwrite team.

Although this library is part of the Utopia Framework project it is dependency free, and can be used as standalone with any other PHP project or framework.

Getting Started

Install using composer:

composer require utopia-php/database

Concepts

A list of the utopia/php concepts and their relevant equivalent using the different adapters

  • Database - An instance of the utopia/database library that abstracts one of the supported adapters and provides a unified API for CRUD operation and queries on a specific schema or isolated scope inside the underlining database.
  • Adapter - An implementation of an underlying database engine that this library can support - below is a list of supported databases and supported capabilities for each Database.
  • Collection - A set of documents stored on the same adapter scope. For SQL-based adapters, this will be equivalent to a table. For a No-SQL adapter, this will equivalent to a native collection.
  • Document - A simple JSON object that will be stored in one of the utopia/database collections. For SQL-based adapters, this will be equivalent to a row. For a No-SQL adapter, this will equivalent to a native document.
  • Attribute - A simple document attribute. For SQL-based adapters, this will be equivalent to a column. For a No-SQL adapter, this will equivalent to a native document field.
  • Index - A simple collection index used to improve the performance of your database queries.
  • Permissions - Using permissions, you can decide which roles have read, create, update and delete access for a specific document. The special attribute $permissions is used to store permission metadata for each document in the collection. A permission role can be any string you want. You can use Authorization::setRole() to delegate new roles to your users, once obtained a new role a user would gain read, create, update or delete access to a relevant document.

Filters

Attribute filters are functions that manipulate attributes before saving them to the database and after retrieving them from the database. You can add filters using the Database::addFilter($name, $encode, $decode) where $name is the name of the filter that we can add later to attribute filters array. $encode and $decode are the functions used to encode and decode the attribute, respectively. There are also instance-level filters that can only be defined while constructing the Database instance. Instance level filters override the static filters if they have the same name.

Reserved Attributes

  • $id - the document unique ID, you can set your own custom ID or a random UID will be generated by the library.
  • $createdAt - the document creation date, this attribute is automatically set when the document is created.
  • $updatedAt - the document update date, this attribute is automatically set when the document is updated.
  • $collection - an attribute containing the name of the collection the document is stored in.
  • $permissions - an attribute containing an array of strings. Each string represent a specific action and role. If your user obtains that role for that action they will have access for this document.

Attribute Types

The database document interface only supports primitives types (strings, integers, floats, and booleans) translated to their native database types for each of the relevant database adapters. Complex types like arrays or objects will be encoded to JSON strings when stored and decoded back when fetched from their adapters.

Supported Databases

Below is a list of supported databases, and their compatibly tested versions alongside a list of supported features and relevant limits.

Adapter Status Version
MariaDB 10.5
MySQL 8.0
Postgres 13.0
MongoDB 5.0
SQLlite 3.38

✅ - supported

🛠 - work in progress

Limitations

MariaDB, MySQL, Postgres, SQLite

  • ID max size can be 255 bytes
  • ID can only contain [^A-Za-z0-9] and symbols _ -
  • Document max size is 65535 bytes
  • Collection can have a max of 1017 attributes
  • Collection can have a max of 64 indexes
  • Index value max size is 768 bytes. Values over 768 bytes are truncated
  • String max size is 4294967295 characters
  • Integer max size is 4294967295

MongoDB

  • ID max size can be 255 bytes
  • ID can only contain [^A-Za-z0-9] and symbols _ -
  • Document can have unrestricted size
  • Collection can have unrestricted amount of attributes
  • Collection can have a max of 64 indexes
  • Index value can have unrestricted size
  • String max size is 2147483647 characters
  • Integer max size is 4294967295

Usage

Connecting to a Database

MariaDB

require_once __DIR__ . '/vendor/autoload.php';

use PDO;
use Utopia\Database\Database;
use Utopia\Cache\Cache;
use Utopia\Cache\Adapter\Memory;
use Utopia\Database\Adapter\MariaDB;

$dbHost = 'mariadb';
$dbPort = '3306';
$dbUser = 'root';
$dbPass = 'password';
$pdoConfig = [
    PDO::ATTR_TIMEOUT => 3, // Seconds
    PDO::ATTR_PERSISTENT => true,
    PDO::ATTR_DEFAULT_FETCH_MODE => PDO::FETCH_ASSOC,
    PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE => PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION,
    PDO::ATTR_EMULATE_PREPARES => true,
    PDO::ATTR_STRINGIFY_FETCHES => true,
];

$pdo = new PDO("mysql:host={$dbHost};port={$dbPort};charset=utf8mb4", $dbUser, $dbPass, $pdoConfig);

$cache = new Cache(new Memory()); // or use any cache adapter you wish

$database = new Database(new MariaDB($pdo), $cache);

MySQL

require_once __DIR__ . '/vendor/autoload.php';

use PDO;
use Utopia\Database\Database;
use Utopia\Cache\Cache;
use Utopia\Cache\Adapter\Memory;
use Utopia\Database\Adapter\MySQL;

$dbHost = 'mysql';
$dbPort = '3306';
$dbUser = 'root';
$dbPass = 'password';
$pdoConfig = [
    PDO::ATTR_TIMEOUT => 3, // Seconds
    PDO::ATTR_PERSISTENT => true,
    PDO::ATTR_DEFAULT_FETCH_MODE => PDO::FETCH_ASSOC,
    PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE => PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION,
    PDO::ATTR_EMULATE_PREPARES => true,
    PDO::ATTR_STRINGIFY_FETCHES => true,
];

$pdo = new PDO("mysql:host={$dbHost};port={$dbPort};charset=utf8mb4", $dbUser, $dbPass, $pdoConfig);

$cache = new Cache(new Memory()); // or use any cache adapter you wish

$database = new Database(new MySql($pdo), $cache);

Postgres

require_once __DIR__ . '/vendor/autoload.php';

use PDO;
use Utopia\Database\Database;
use Utopia\Cache\Cache;
use Utopia\Cache\Adapter\Memory;
use Utopia\Database\Adapter\Postgres;

$dbHost = 'postgres';
$dbPort = '5432';
$dbUser = 'root';
$dbPass = 'password';
$pdoConfig = [
    PDO::ATTR_TIMEOUT => 3, // Seconds
    PDO::ATTR_PERSISTENT => true,
    PDO::ATTR_DEFAULT_FETCH_MODE => PDO::FETCH_ASSOC,
    PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE => PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION,
    PDO::ATTR_EMULATE_PREPARES => true,
    PDO::ATTR_STRINGIFY_FETCHES => true,
];

$pdo = new PDO("pgsql:host={$dbHost};port={$dbPort};charset=utf8mb4", $dbUser, $dbPass, $pdoConfig);

$cache = new Cache(new Memory()); // or use any cache adapter you wish

$database = new Database(new Postgres($pdo), $cache);

SQLite

require_once __DIR__ . '/vendor/autoload.php';

use PDO;
use Utopia\Database\Database;
use Utopia\Cache\Cache;
use Utopia\Cache\Adapter\Memory;
use Utopia\Database\Adapter\SQLite;

$dbPath = '/path/to/database.sqlite';
$pdoConfig = [
    PDO::ATTR_TIMEOUT => 3, // Seconds
    PDO::ATTR_PERSISTENT => true,
    PDO::ATTR_DEFAULT_FETCH_MODE => PDO::FETCH_ASSOC,
    PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE => PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION,
    PDO::ATTR_EMULATE_PREPARES => true,
    PDO::ATTR_STRINGIFY_FETCHES => true,
];

$pdo = new PDO("{$dbPath}", $pdoConfig);

$cache = new Cache(new Memory()); // or use any cache adapter you wish

$database = new Database(new SQLite($pdo), $cache);

MongoDB

require_once __DIR__ . '/vendor/autoload.php';

use Utopia\Database\Database;
use Utopia\Cache\Cache;
use Utopia\Cache\Adapter\Memory;
use Utopia\Database\Adapter\Mongo;
use Utopia\Mongo\Client; // from utopia-php/mongo

$dbHost = 'mongo';
$dbPort = 27017; 
$dbUser = 'root';
$dbPass = 'password';
$dbName = 'dbName';

$mongoClient = new Client($dbName, $dbHost, $dbPort, $dbUser, $dbPass, true);

$cache = new Cache(new Memory()); // or use any cache adapter you wish

$database = new Database(new Mongo($client), $cache);

Database Methods

// Get namespace
$database->getNamespace();

// Sets namespace that prefixes all collection names
$database->setNamespace(
    namespace: 'namespace'
);

// Get default database
$database->getDatabase();

// Sets default database
$database->setDatabase(
    name: 'dbName'
);

// Creates a new database. 
// Uses default database as the name.
$database->create();

// Returns an array of all databases
$database->list();

// Delete database
$database->delete(
    name: 'mydb'
);

// Ping database it returns true if the database is alive
$database->ping();

// Check if database exists
$database->exists(
    database: 'mydb'
); 

// Check if collection exists
$database->exists(
    database: 'mydb',
    collection: 'users'
); 

// Listen to events

// Event Types
Database::EVENT_ALL
Database::EVENT_DATABASE_CREATE,
Database::EVENT_DATABASE_LIST,
Database::EVENT_COLLECTION_CREATE,
Database::EVENT_COLLECTION_LIST,
Database::EVENT_COLLECTION_READ,
Database::EVENT_ATTRIBUTE_CREATE,
Database::EVENT_ATTRIBUTE_UPDATE,
Database::EVENT_INDEX_CREATE,
Database::EVENT_DOCUMENT_CREATE,
Database::EVENT_DOCUMENT_UPDATE,
Database::EVENT_DOCUMENT_READ,
Database::EVENT_DOCUMENT_FIND,
Database::EVENT_DOCUMENT_FIND,
Database::EVENT_DOCUMENT_COUNT,
Database::EVENT_DOCUMENT_SUM,
Database::EVENT_DOCUMENT_INCREASE,
Database::EVENT_DOCUMENT_DECREASE,
Database::EVENT_INDEX_DELETE,
Database::EVENT_DOCUMENT_DELETE,
Database::EVENT_ATTRIBUTE_DELETE,
Database::EVENT_COLLECTION_DELETE,
Database::EVENT_DATABASE_DELETE,

$database->on(
    Database::EVENT_ALL, 
    function($event, $data) {
        // Do something
    }
);

// Get Database Adapter
$database->getAdapter();

// Get List of keywords that cannot be used
$database->getKeywords();

Collection Methods

// Creates two new collection named '$namespace_$collectionName' with attribute names '_id', '_uid', '_createdAt', '_updatedAt', '_permissions' 
// The second collection is named '$namespace_$collectionName_perms' with attribute names '_id', '_type', '_permission', '_document'
$database->createCollection(
    name: 'users'
);

// Create collection with attributes and indexes
$attributes = [
     new Document([
         '$id' => ID::unique(),
         '$permissions' => [
            Permission::read(Role::any()),
            Permission::update(Role::any()),
            Permission::delete(Role::any())
         ],
         'name' => 'Jhon', 
         'age'  =>  20
     ]),
     new Document([
         '$id' => ID::unique(),
         '$permissions' => [
            Permission::read(Role::any()),
            Permission::update(Role::any()),
            Permission::delete(Role::any())
         ],
         'name' => 'Doe', 
         'age'  =>  34
     ]),
]

$indexes = [
     new Document([
            '$id' => ID::unique(),
            'type' => Database::INDEX_KEY,
            'attributes' => ['name'],
            'lengths' => [256],
            'orders' => ['ASC'],
        ]),
     new Document([
            '$id' => ID::unique(),
            'type' => Database::INDEX_KEY,
            'attributes' => ['name', 'age'],
            'lengths' => [128, 128],
            'orders' => ['ASC'],
        ])
];

$database->createCollection(
    name: 'users', 
    attributes: $attributes, 
    indexes: $indexes
);

// Update Collection Permissions
$database->updateCollection(
    id: 'users',
    permissions: [
        Permission::read(Role::any()),
        Permission::update(Role::any()),
        Permission::delete(Role::any())
    ],
    documentSecurity: true
);

// Get Collection
$database->getCollection(
    id: 'users'
);

// List Collections
$database->listCollections(
    limit: 25, 
    offset: 0
);

// Deletes the two collections named 'namespace_$collectionName' and 'namespace_$collectionName_perms'
$database->deleteCollection(
    id: 'users'
);

// Delete cached documents of a collection
$database->purgeCachedCollection(
    collection: 'users'
);

Attribute Methods

// Data types
Database::VAR_STRING      
Database::VAR_INTEGER
Database::VAR_FLOAT
Database::VAR_BOOLEAN  
Database::VAR_DATETIME


// Creates a new attribute named '$attributeName' in the '$namespace_$collectionName' collection.
$database->createAttribute(
    collection: 'movies',
    id: 'name',
    type:  Database::VAR_STRING,
    size: 128, 
    required: true
);

// New attribute with optional parameters
$database->createAttribute(
    collection: 'movies', 
    id: 'genres',
    type: Database::VAR_STRING, 
    size: 128, 
    required: true, 
    default: null, 
    signed: true, 
    array: false, 
    format: null, 
    formatOptions: [], 
    filters: []
);

// Updates the attribute named '$attributeName' in the '$namespace_$collectionName' collection.
$database-> updateAttribute(
    collection: 'movies', 
    id: 'genres',
    type: Database::VAR_STRING, 
    size: 128, 
    required: true, 
    default: null, 
    signed: true, 
    array: false, 
    format: null, 
    formatOptions: [], 
    filters: []
);

// Update the required status of an attribute
$database->updateAttributeRequired(
    collection: 'movies', 
    id: 'genres',
    required: true
);

// Update the attribute format
$database->updateAttributeFormat(
    collection: 'movies', 
    id: 'genres',
    format: null,
);

// Update the attribute format options
$database->updateAttributeFormatOptions(
    collection: 'movies', 
    id: 'genres',
    formatOptions: []
);

// Update the attribute filters
$database->updateAttributeFilters(
    collection: 'movies', 
    id: 'genres',
    filters: []
);

// Update the default value of an attribute
$database->updateAttributeDefault(
    collection: 'movies', 
    id: 'genres',
    default: 'sci-fi'
);

// Check if attribute can be added to a collection
$collection = $database->getCollection('movies');

$attribute = new Document([
    '$id' => ID::unique(),
    'type' => Database::VAR_INTEGER,
    'size' => 256,
    'required' => true,
    'default' => null,
    'signed' => true,
    'array' => false,
    'filters' => [],
]);

$database->checkAttribute(
    collection: $collection,
    attribute: $attribute
);

// Get Adapter attribute limit
$database->getLimitForAttributes(); // if 0 then no limit

// Get Adapter index limit
$database->getLimitForIndexes(); 

// Renames the attribute from old to new in the '$namespace_$collectionName' collection.
$database->renameAttribute(
    collection: 'movies',
    old: 'genres', 
    new: 'genres2'
);

// Deletes the attribute in the '$namespace_$collectionName' collection.
$database->deleteAttribute(
    collection: 'movies', 
    id: 'genres'
);

Index Methods

// Index types
Database::INDEX_KEY,                 
Database::INDEX_FULLTEXT
Database::INDEX_UNIQUE
Database::INDEX_SPATIAL
Database::INDEX_ARRAY

// Insertion Order                                 
Database::ORDER_ASC
Database::ORDER_DESC
   

// Creates a new index named '$indexName' in the '$namespace_$collectionName' collection.
// Note: The size for the index will be taken from the size of the attribute
$database->createIndex(
    collection: 'movies', 
    id: 'index1', Database::INDEX_KEY, 
    attributes: ['name', 'genres'], 
    lengths: [128,128], 
    orders: [Database::ORDER_ASC, Database::ORDER_DESC]
);

// Rename index from old to new in the '$namespace_$collectionName' collection.
$database->renameIndex(
    collection: 'movies', 
    old: 'index1', 
    new: 'index2'
);

// Deletes the index in the '$namespace_$collectionName' collection.
$database->deleteIndex(
    collection: 'movies', 
    id: 'index2'
);

Relationship Methods

// Relationship types
Database::RELATION_ONE_TO_ONE
Database::RELATION_ONE_TO_MANY
Database::RELATION_MANY_TO_ONE
Database::RELATION_MANY_TO_MANY

// Creates a relationship between the two collections with the default reference attributes
$database->createRelationship(
    collection: 'movies', 
    relatedCollection: 'users', 
    type: Database::RELATION_ONE_TO_ONE,
    twoWay: true
);


// Create a relationship with custom reference attributes
$database->createRelationship(
    collection: 'movies', 
    relatedCollection: 'users', 
    type: Database::RELATION_ONE_TO_ONE, 
    twoWay: true, 
    id: 'movies_id', 
    twoWayKey: 'users_id'
); 

// Relationship onDelete types
Database::RELATION_MUTATE_CASCADE, 
Database::RELATION_MUTATE_SET_NULL,
Database::RELATION_MUTATE_RESTRICT,

// Update the relationship with the default reference attributes
$database->updateRelationship(
    collection: 'movies', 
    id: 'users', 
    onDelete: Database::RELATION_MUTATE_CASCADE
); 

// Update the relationship with custom reference attributes
$database->updateRelationship(
    collection: 'movies', 
    id: 'users', 
    onDelete: Database::RELATION_MUTATE_CASCADE, 
    newKey: 'movies_id', 
    newTwoWayKey: 'users_id', 
    twoWay: true
);

// Delete the relationship with the default or custom reference attributes
$database->deleteRelationship(
    collection: 'movies', 
    id: 'users'
);

Document Methods

use Utopia\Database\Document;             
use Utopia\Database\Helpers\ID;
use Utopia\Database\Helpers\Permission;
use Utopia\Database\Helpers\Role;

// Id helpers
ID::unique(padding: 12)        // Creates an id of length 7 + padding
ID::custom(id: 'my_user_3235')  

// Role helpers
Role::any()
Role::guests()
Role::user(
    identifier: ID::unique()
    status: 'active' //optional
)    
Role::users()
Role::team(
    identifier: ID::unique()
)
Role::team(
    identifier: ID::unique()
    dimension: '123'  //team:id/dimension
)
Role::label(
    identifier: 'admin'
)
Role::members(
    identifier: ID::unique()
)



// Permission helpers
Permission::read(Role::any()),
Permission::create(Role::user(ID::unique())),
Permission::update(Role::user(ID::unique(padding: 23))),
Permission::delete(Role::user(ID::custom(id: 'my_user_3235'))

// To create a document
$document = new Document([
    '$permissions' => [
        Permission::read(Role::any()),
        Permission::create(Role::user(ID::custom('1x'))),
        Permission::update(Role::user(ID::unique(12))),
        Permission::delete(Role::user($customId)),
    ],
    '$id' => ID::unique(),
    'name' => 'Captain Marvel',
    'director' => 'Anna Boden & Ryan Fleck',
    'year' => 2019,
    'price' => 25.99,
    'active' => true,
    'genres' => ['science fiction', 'action', 'comics'],
]);

$document = $database->createDocument(
    collection: 'movies', 
    document: $document
);

// Get which collection a document belongs to
$document->getCollection();

// Get document id
$document->getId();

// Check whether document in empty
$document->isEmpty();

// Increase an attribute in a document 
$database->increaseDocumentAttribute(
    collection: 'movies', 
    id: $document->getId(),
    attribute: 'name', 
    value: 24,
    max: 100
);

// Decrease an attribute in a document
$database->decreaseDocumentAttribute(
    collection: 'movies', 
    id: $document->getId(),
    attribute: 'name', 
    value: 24, 
    min: 100
);

// Update the value of an attribute in a document

// Set types
Document::SET_TYPE_ASSIGN, // Assign the new value directly
Document::SET_TYPE_APPEND, // Append the new value to end of the array
Document::SET_TYPE_PREPEND // Prepend the new value to start of the array
Note: Using append/prepend with an attribute which is not an array, it will be set to an array containing the new value.

$document->setAttribute(key: 'name', 'Chris Smoove')
         ->setAttribute(key: 'age', 33, Document::SET_TYPE_ASSIGN);

$database->updateDocument(
    collection: 'users', 
    id: $document->getId(), 
    document: $document
);         

// Update the permissions of a document
$document->setAttribute('$permissions', Permission::read(Role::any()), Document::SET_TYPE_APPEND)
         ->setAttribute('$permissions', Permission::create(Role::any()), Document::SET_TYPE_APPEND)
         ->setAttribute('$permissions', Permission::update(Role::any()), Document::SET_TYPE_APPEND)
         ->setAttribute('$permissions', Permission::delete(Role::any()), Document::SET_TYPE_APPEND)

$database->updateDocument(
    collection: 'users', 
    id: $document->getId(), 
    document: $document
);

// Info regarding who has permission to read, create, update and delete a document
$document->getRead(); // returns an array of roles that have permission to read the document
$document->getCreate(); // returns an array of roles that have permission to create the document
$document->getUpdate(); // returns an array of roles that have permission to update the document
$document->getDelete(); // returns an array of roles that have permission to delete the document

// Get document with all attributes
$database->getDocument(
    collection: 'movies', 
    id: $document->getId()
); 

// Get document with a sub-set of attributes
$database->getDocument(
    collection: 'movies', 
    id: $document->getId(), 
    queries: [
        Query::select(['name', 'director', 'year'])
    ]
);

// Find documents 

// Query Types
Query::equal(attribute: "...", values: ["...", "..."]),
Query::notEqual(attribute: "...", value: "..."),
Query::lessThan(attribute: "...", value: 100),
Query::lessThanEqual(attribute: "...", value: 1000),
Query::greaterThan(attribute: "...", value: 1000),
Query::greaterThanEqual(attribute: "...", value: ...),  
Query::contains(attribute: "...", values: ["...", "..."]),
Query::between(attribute: "...", start: 100, end: 1000),
Query::search(attribute: "...", value: "..."),
Query::select(attributes: ["...", "..."]),
Query::orderDesc(attribute: "..."),
Query::orderAsc(attribute: "..."),
Query::isNull(attribute: "..."),
Query::isNotNull(attribute: "..."),
Query::startsWith(attribute: "...", value: "..."),
Query::endsWith(attribute: "...", value: "..."),
Query::limit(value: 35),
Query::offset(value: 0),

$database->find(
    collection: 'movies', 
    queries:  [
        Query::equal(attribute: 'name', values: ['Captain Marvel']),
        Query::notEqual(attribute: 'year', values: [2019])
    ], 
    timeout: 1 //timeout is optional
);  

// Find a document 
$database->findOne(
    collection: 'movies', 
    queries:  [
        Query::equal(attribute: 'name', values: ['Captain Marvel']),
        Query::lessThan(attribute: 'year', value: 2019)
    ]
);  

// Get count of documents 
$database->count(
    collection: 'movies', 
    queries:  [
        Query::equal(attribute: 'name', values: ['Captain Marvel']),
        Query::greaterThan(attribute: 'year', value: 2019)
    ], 
    max: 1000 // Max is optional
);

// Get the sum of an attribute from all the documents
$database->sum(
    collection: 'movies', 
    attribute: 'price', 
    queries:  [
        Query::greaterThan(attribute: 'year', value: 2019)
    ],
    max: null // max = null means no limit
); 

// Delete a document
$database->deleteDocument(
    collection: 'movies', 
    id: $document->getId()
);

// Delete a cached document
Note: Cached Documents or Collections are automatically deleted when a document or collection is updated or deleted 
$database->purgeCachedDocument(
    collection: 'movies', 
    id: $document->getId()
);

System Requirements

Utopia Framework requires PHP 8.0 or later. We recommend using the latest PHP version whenever possible.

Contributing

Thank you for considering contributing to the Utopia Framework! Checkout the CONTRIBUTING.md file for more information.

Copyright and License

The MIT License (MIT) http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php