m1/env

Env is a lightweight library bringing .env file parser compatibility to PHP. In short - it enables you to read .env files with PHP.

2.1.0 2016-10-06 19:31 UTC

README

Author Latest Version on Packagist Software License Build Status Coverage Status Quality Score Downloads StyleCI

Sensio badge

Env is a lightweight library bringing .env file parser compatibility to PHP. In short - it enables you to read .env files with PHP.

Why?

Env aims to bring a unified parser for env together for PHP rather than having a few incomplete or buggy parsers written into other libraries. This library is not meant as a complete package for config loading like other libraries as this is out of scope for this library. If you need something like that check out Vars which incorporates this library so you can load Env and other file types if you want, or checkout PHP Dotenv if you only need .env parsing

Requirements

Env requires PHP version 5.3+ - supported and tested on 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 7 and hhvm.

Install

Via Composer

$ composer require m1/env

Usage

Basic

test.env

TEST_1 = VALUE

example.php


//both examples return the same thing

// example 1 -- standard
use M1\Env\Parser;

$env = new Parser(file_get_contents('test.env'));
$arr = $env->getContent();

// example 2 -- statically
$arr = Parser::parse(file_get_contents('test.env'));

var_dump($arr);
// [
//      "TEST_1" => "VALUE"
// ]

Syntax

The Syntax is slightly more relaxed than bash, but still remains quite bash like

Assignment

To assign values the syntax is key = value, unlike bash the assignment is pretty relaxed, any of the below are valid:

TEST1 = value
TEST2= VALUE
TEST3 =VALUE
TEST4=VALUE
 TEST5 = VALUE
TEST6  =   VALUE

However keys can not start with a number, e.g.:

1notvalid = nope

Will throw a ParseException

You can also add export to the start of variables to source the file in bash (see here for more info):

export TEST1=value

Strings

Strings can either be in quotes (single or double) or without:

TEST1 = value
TEST2 = "value"
TEST3 = 'value'

To escape new lines or quotes is the standard backslash:

TEST1 = "value \n value"
TEST2 = "value \"value\" value"
TEST3 = 'value \' value \' value'

If you feature two quoted strings as a value then only the first quoted string will be assigned to the key:

TEST1 = "value value" "this sentence in quotes will not be counted"

Numbers

Numbers are fairly standard:

TEST1 = 1
TEST2 = 2

Decimal numbers will be automatically cast to floats:

TEST1 = 1.1 # `float` type
TEST2 = 2   # `int` type

If you quote numbers they will be counted as strings, or if you have two numbers on one line:

TEST1 = 33 33 # `string` type
TEST2 = "22"  # `string` type

Booleans

Booleans can be true, false, yes and no:

TEST1 = true
TEST2 = false
TEST3 = yes
TEST4 = no

Booleans are case-insensitive:

TEST1 = True
TEST2 = False
TEST3 = YES
TEST4 = NO

Booleans in quotes will be treated as strings:

TEST1 = "true" # `string` type
TEST2 = "YES"  # `string` type
TEST3 = 'NO'   # `string` type

Null

Both of the below are counted as null values:

TEST1 =
TEST2 = null

Whereas an empty string is counted as a string:

TEST1 = "" # `string` type
TEST2 = '' # `string` type

Variables

Variables are based of the bash syntax:

TEST1 = 'hello'
TEST2 = ${TEST27} # 'hello'

The types of variable get passed to the calling variable if there is only one variable. If there are more than one variable, the calling variable is automatically cast to a string:

TEST1 = 1 # `int` type
TEST2 = 2 # `int` type
TEST3 = ${TEST1} ${TEST2} # `string` type
TEST4 = true     # `bool` type
TEST5 = ${TEST4} # `bool` type

Also if the variable is in quotes then the variable will be automatically cast as a string:

TEST1 = 1 # `int` type
TEST2 = "${TEST1}" # `string` type

But you can use variables without quotes and they'll be cast as strings:

TEST1 = foo
TEST2 = bar
TEST3 = ${TEST1}/${TEST2} # `string` type

Variables are useful to use in strings like so:

TEST1 = "foo"
TEST2 = 'bar'
TEST3 = "hello ${TEST1} and ${TEST2}"

Null values are passed and casted as empty strings if in quotes:

TEST1 = null
TEST2 = ${TEST1} # `null` type
TEST3 = "${TEST1}" # `string` type

Single Quotes with variables will be counted as strings:

TEST1 = '${hello} # `string` type, will output: '${hello}'
Parameter Expansion

You can do parameter expansion, so far you can only do default values and assign default values like in the bash syntax:

TEST1 = foo
TEST2 = ${TEST3:=bar}
TEST4 = ${TEST5=bar}
TEST6 = ${TEST7:-bar}
TEST8 = ${TEST9-bar}

The default value parameter expansion syntax is :-, the explanation on the bash-hackers wiki for this is:

SYNTAX:

${PARAMETER:-WORD}

${PARAMETER-WORD}

If the parameter PARAMETER is unset (never was defined) or null (empty), this one expands to WORD, otherwise it expands to the value of PARAMETER, as if it just was ${PARAMETER}. If you omit the : (colon), like shown in the second form, the default value is only used when the parameter was unset, not when it was empty.

For example:

TEST1 = foo
TEST2 = ${TEST1:-bar} # TEST1 is set so the value of TEST2 = foo

TEST3 = ${TEST4:-bar} # TEST4 is not set so the value of TEST3 = bar

TEST5 = null
TEST6 = ${TEST5-bar} # TEST5 is set but empty so the value of TEST6 = null
TEST7 = ${TEST6:-bar} # TEST5 is set and empty so the value of TEST7 = bar

The assign default value parameter expansion is :=, the explanation on the bash-hackers wiki for this is:

SYNTAX:

${PARAMETER:=WORD}

${PARAMETER=WORD}

This one works like the using default values, but the default text you give is not only expanded, but also assigned to the parameter, if it was unset or null. Equivalent to using a default value, when you omit the : (colon), as shown in the second form, the default value will only be assigned when the parameter was unset.

For example:

TEST1 = foo
TEST2 = ${TEST1:=bar} # TEST1 is set so the value of TEST2 = foo

TEST3 = ${TEST4:=bar} # TEST4 is not set so the value of TEST3 = bar and TEST4 = bar

TEST5 = null
TEST6 = ${TEST5=bar} # TEST5 is set but emtpy so the value of TEST6 = null 
TEST7 = ${TEST6=bar} # TEST5 is set and empty so the value of TEST7 = bar and TEST5 = bar

Comments

To comment, just use the # syntax, you can also comment inline like so:

# This is a comment
TEST1 = bar # and so is this

If you put a # without a space in a unquoted string, it will be parsed as a string:

TEST1 = hello#notacomment

.env example

# Comments are done like this

# Standard key=value
TEST1 = value
TEST2 = value
TEST3 = value # You can also comment inline like this

# Strings
TEST4 = "value"

## The value of the below variable will be TK4 = "value value"
TEST5 = "value value" "this sentence in quotes will not be counted"

## Escape newline
TEST6 = "value \n value"

## Escape double quotes
TEST7 = "value \"value\" value"

## You can also exchange any of the above for single quotes, eg:
TEST8 = 'value'
TEST9 = 'value \' value \' value'

# Numbers
TEST10 = 1
TEST11 = 1.1
TEST12 = 33 33 # Will output as a `string` -- not a number as two numbers are given
TEST13 = "33" # 33 -- `string` type

# Bools -- All of the below are valid booleans
TEST14 = true
TEST15 = false
TEST16 = yes
TEST17 = no

## Booleans are case-insensitive
TEST18 = True
TEST19 = False
TEST20 = YES
TEST21 = NO

TEST22 = "true" # "true" -- `string` type
TEST23 = "YES" # "YES" -- `string` type
TEST24 = 'NO' # "NO" -- `string` type

# Null values
TEST25 =
TEST26 = null

# Variables
TEST27 = 'hello'
TEST28 = ${TEST27} # 'hello'

TEST29 = 1
TEST30 = 2
TEST31 = ${TEST29}   # 1 -- `int` type
TEST32 = "${TEST29}" # 1 -- `string` type
TEST33 = ${TEST29} ${TEST30} # 1 2 -- `string` type

TEST34 = foo
TEST35 = bar
TEST36 = ${TEST34}/${TEST35} # foo/bar -- `string` type

TEST37 = "foo"
TEST38 = 'bar'
TEST39 = "hello ${TEST37} and ${TEST38}" # hello foo and bar -- `string` type

TEST40 = true
TEST41 = false
TEST42 = ${TEST40} # true -- `bool` type
TEST43 = ${TEST40} ${TEST41} # true false -- `string` type

TEST44 = null
TEST45 = ${TEST44} # null -- `null` type
TEST46 = "${TEST44}" # '' -- `string` type
TEST46_5 = '${TEST44}' # '' -- `string` type

TEST47=foo
TEST48=${TEST47:=bar}
TEST49=${TEST50:=foo}
TEST51=${TEST52:-foo}
TEST53=null
TEST54=${TEST53=foo}
TEST55=null
TEST56=${TEST55-foo}
TEST57=${TEST58:=""}
TEST59=${TEST60:=null} # TEST59 = null TEST60 = null -- both `null` types
TEST61=${TEST62:=true} # TEST61 = true TEST62 = true -- both `bool` types

# Comments
TEST63 = hello # comment
TEST64 = "hello # comment"
TEST65 = "hello" #comment
TEST66 = #comment
TEST67 = "#comment"
TEST68 = thisisnota#comment

The result from this library and the expected result of the above is:

array(
    "TEST1" => "value",
    "TEST2" => "value",
    "TEST3" => "value",
    "TEST4" => "value",
    "TEST5" => "value value",
    "TEST6" => "value \n value",
    "TEST7" => 'value "value" value',
    "TEST8" => "value",
    "TEST9" => "value ' value ' value",
    "TEST10" => 1,
    "TEST11" => 1.1,
    "TEST12" => "33 33",
    "TEST13" => "33",
    "TEST14" => true,
    "TEST15" => false,
    "TEST16" => true,
    "TEST17" => false,
    "TEST18" => true,
    "TEST19" => false,
    "TEST20" => true,
    "TEST21" => false,
    "TEST22" => "true",
    "TEST23" => "YES",
    "TEST24" => 'NO',
    "TEST25" => null,
    "TEST26" => null,
    "TEST27" => "hello",
    "TEST28" => "hello",
    "TEST29" => 1,
    "TEST30" => 2,
    "TEST31" => 1,
    "TEST32" => "1",
    "TEST33" => "1 2",
    "TEST34" => "foo",
    "TEST35" => "bar",
    "TEST36" => "foo/bar",
    "TEST37" => "foo",
    "TEST38" => 'bar',
    "TEST39" => "hello foo and bar",
    "TEST40" => true,
    "TEST41" => false,
    "TEST42" => true,
    "TEST43" => "true false",
    "TEST44" => null,
    "TEST45" => null,
    "TEST46" => "",
    "TEST46_5" => "${TEST44}",
    'TEST47' => 'foo',
    'TEST48' => 'foo',
    'TEST50' => 'foo',
    'TEST49' => 'foo',
    'TEST51' => 'foo',
    'TEST53' => null,
    'TEST54' => null,
    'TEST55' => null,
    'TEST56' => null,
    'TEST58' => '',
    'TEST57' => '',
    'TEST60' => null,
    'TEST59' => null,
    'TEST62' => true,
    'TEST61' => true,
    'TEST63' => 'hello # comment',
    'TEST64' => 'hello',
    'TEST66' => null,
    'TEST67' => '#comment',
    'TEST68' => 'thisisnota#comment',
);

Notes

Source

If you need the .env variables in other applications, you can source the env, but make sure it's valid bash syntax, as this parser allows a more relaxed form of bash syntax.

source .env

This library will always be able to parse bash syntax, but for now the opposite (env syntax -> bash syntax) may not be true, however this is being worked on to bring a strict parser version for 3.0

Other library comparisons

The difference between this library and other similar libraries:

zrcing/phpenv:

  • Converts all value types to string
  • Does not support null values
  • Does not support int, float or bool types
  • Does not support variables

Dotenv\Dotenv:

  • Does not support unquoted values like 33 33, this should be cast to string. See TEST12
  • Does not support concatenation of variables unquoted like ${VAR} ${VAR2}, this should be cast to string. See TEST33
  • Both of the above crash Dotenv without a helpful exception
  • Converts all value types to string
  • Does not support null values
  • Does not support int, float or bool types
  • Does not support variables
  • Does not support parameter expansions
  • Does not support inline comments where there is no value. See TEST66

Todo

Change log

Please see CHANGELOG for more information what has changed recently.

Testing

$ composer test

Contributing

Please see CONTRIBUTING and CONDUCT for details.

Security

If you discover any security related issues, please email hello@milescroxford.com instead of using the issue tracker.

Credits

License

The MIT License (MIT). Please see License File for more information.