Eloquent syntax for DynamoDB

4.14.0 2020-06-04 21:33 UTC


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Supports all key types - primary hash key and composite keys.

For advanced users only. If you're not familiar with Laravel, Laravel Eloquent and DynamoDB, then I suggest that you get familiar with those first.

Breaking changes in v2: config no longer lives in config/services.php


  • Composer install

    composer require baopham/dynamodb
  • Install service provider:

    // config/app.php
    'providers' => [
  • Run

    php artisan vendor:publish
  • Update DynamoDb config in config/dynamodb.php

For Lumen

  • Try this to install the vendor:publish command

  • Load configuration file and enable Eloquent support in bootstrap/app.php:

    $app = new Laravel\Lumen\Application(
    // Load dynamodb config file
    // Enable Eloquent support


  • Extends your model with BaoPham\DynamoDb\DynamoDbModel, then you can use Eloquent methods that are supported. The idea here is that you can switch back to Eloquent without changing your queries.
  • Or if you want to sync your DB table with a DynamoDb table, use trait BaoPham\DynamoDb\ModelTrait, it will call a PutItem after the model is saved.
  • Alternatively, you can use the query builder facade to build more complex queries.
  • AWS SDK v3 for PHP uses guzzlehttp promises to allow for asynchronous workflows. Using this package you can run eloquent queries like delete, update, save asynchronously on DynamoDb.

Supported features:

find() and delete()

$model->find($id, array $columns = []);
$model->findMany($ids, array $columns = []);


// Using getIterator()
// If 'key' is the primary key or a global/local index and it is a supported Query condition,
// will use 'Query', otherwise 'Scan'.
$model->where('key', 'key value')->get();

$model->where(['key' => 'key value']);

// Chainable for 'AND'.
$model->where('foo', 'bar')
    ->where('foo2', '!=' 'bar2')
// Chainable for 'OR'.
$model->where('foo', 'bar')
    ->orWhere('foo2', '!=' 'bar2')
// Other types of conditions
$model->where('count', '>', 0)->get();
$model->where('count', '>=', 0)->get();
$model->where('count', '<', 0)->get();
$model->where('count', '<=', 0)->get();
$model->whereIn('count', [0, 100])->get();
$model->whereNotIn('count', [0, 100])->get();
$model->where('count', 'between', [0, 100])->get();
$model->where('description', 'begins_with', 'foo')->get();
$model->where('description', 'contains', 'foo')->get();
$model->where('description', 'not_contains', 'foo')->get();

// Nested conditions
$model->where('name', 'foo')
    ->where(function ($query) {
        $query->where('count', 10)->orWhere('count', 20);

// Nested attributes
$model->where('', 'bar')->where('list[0]', 'baz')->get();
whereNull() and whereNotNull()

NULL and NOT_NULL only check for the attribute presence not its value being null


all() and first()

// Using scan operator, not too reliable since DynamoDb will only give 1MB total of data.

// Basically a scan but with limit of 1 item.


Unfortunately, offset of how many records to skip does not make sense for DynamoDb. Instead, provide the last result of the previous query as the starting point for the next query.


For query such as:

$query = $model->where('count', 10)->limit(2);
$items = $query->all();
$last = $items->last();

Take the last item of this query result as the next "offset":

$nextPage = $query->after($last)->limit(2)->all();
// or
$nextPage = $query->afterKey($items->lastKey())->limit(2)->all();
// or (for query without index condition only)
$nextPage = $query->afterKey($last->getKeys())->limit(2)->all();


// update


// update asynchronously and wait on the promise for completion.


$model = new Model();
// Define fillable attributes in your Model class.
$model->fillableAttr1 = 'foo';
$model->fillableAttr2 = 'foo';
// DynamoDb doesn't support incremented Id, so you need to use UUID for the primary key.
$model->id = 'de305d54-75b4-431b-adb2-eb6b9e546014';


Saving single model asynchronously and waiting on the promise for completion.

$model = new Model();
// Define fillable attributes in your Model class.
$model->fillableAttr1 = 'foo';
$model->fillableAttr2 = 'bar';
// DynamoDb doesn't support incremented Id, so you need to use UUID for the primary key.
$model->id = 'de305d54-75b4-431b-adb2-eb6b9e546014';

Saving multiple models asynchronously and waiting on all of them simultaneously.

for($i = 0; $i < 10; $i++){
    $model = new Model();
    // Define fillable attributes in your Model class.
    $model->fillableAttr1 = 'foo';
    $model->fillableAttr2 = 'bar';
    // DynamoDb doesn't support incremented Id, so you need to use UUID for the primary key.
    $model->id = uniqid();
    // Returns a promise which you can wait on later.
    $promises[] = $model->saveAsync();







$model->chunk(10, function ($records) {
    foreach ($records as $record) {


limit() and take()

// Use this with caution unless your limit is small.
// DynamoDB has a limit of 1MB so if your limit is very big, the results will not be expected.
$model->where('name', 'foo')->take(3)->get();


$model->where('name', 'foo')->firstOrFail();
// for composite key
$model->where('id', 'foo')->where('id2', 'bar')->firstOrFail();


// for composite key
$model->findOrFail(['id' => 'foo', 'id2' => 'bar']);


$model = Model::first();

Query Scope

class Foo extends DynamoDbModel
    protected static function boot()

        static::addGlobalScope('count', function (DynamoDbQueryBuilder $builder) {
            $builder->where('count', '>', 6);

    public function scopeCountUnderFour($builder)
        return $builder->where('count', '<', 4);

    public function scopeCountUnder($builder, $count)
        return $builder->where('count', '<', $count);

$foo = new Foo();
// Global scope will be applied
// Local scope
// Dynamic local scope

REMOVE — Deleting Attributes From An Item


$model = new Model();
$model->where('id', 'foo')->removeAttribute('name', 'description', '', 'nestedArray[0]');

// Or
Model::find('foo')->removeAttribute('name', 'description', '', 'nestedArray[0]');

toSql() Style

For debugging purposes, you can choose to convert to the actual DynamoDb query

$raw = $model->where('count', '>', 10)->toDynamoDbQuery();
// $op is either "Scan" or "Query"
$op = $raw->op;
// The query body being sent to AWS
$query = $raw->query;

where $raw is an instance of RawDynamoDbQuery

Decorate Query

Use decorate when you want to enhance the query. For example:

To set the order of the sort key:

$items = $model
    ->where('hash', 'hash-value')
    ->where('range', '>', 10)
    ->decorate(function (RawDynamoDbQuery $raw) {
        // desc order
        $raw->query['ScanIndexForward'] = false;

To force to use "Query" instead of "Scan" if the library fails to detect the correct operation:

$items = $model
    ->where('hash', 'hash-value')
    ->decorate(function (RawDynamoDbQuery $raw) {
        $raw->op = 'Query';


If your table has indexes, make sure to declare them in your model class like so

 * Indexes.
 * [
 *     '<simple_index_name>' => [
 *          'hash' => '<index_key>'
 *     ],
 *     '<composite_index_name>' => [
 *          'hash' => '<index_hash_key>',
 *          'range' => '<index_range_key>'
 *     ],
 * ]
 * @var array
protected $dynamoDbIndexKeys = [
    'count_index' => [
        'hash' => 'count'

Note that order of index matters when a key exists in multiple indexes.
For example, we have this

$model->where('user_id', 123)->where('count', '>', 10)->get();


protected $dynamoDbIndexKeys = [
    'count_index' => [
        'hash' => 'user_id',
        'range' => 'count'
    'user_index' => [
        'hash' => 'user_id',

will use count_index.

protected $dynamoDbIndexKeys = [
    'user_index' => [
        'hash' => 'user_id',
    'count_index' => [
        'hash' => 'user_id',
        'range' => 'count'

will use user_index.

Most of the time, you should not have to do anything but if you need to use a specific index, you can specify it like so

$model->where('user_id', 123)->where('count', '>', 10)->withIndex('count_index')->get();

Composite Keys

To use composite keys with your model:

  • Set $compositeKey to an array of the attributes names comprising the key, e.g.
protected $primaryKey = 'customer_id';
protected $compositeKey = ['customer_id', 'agent_id'];
  • To find a record with a composite key
$model->find(['customer_id' => 'value1', 'agent_id' => 'value2']);

Query Builder

Use DynamoDb facade to build raw queries

use BaoPham\DynamoDb\Facades\DynamoDb;

    // call set<key_name> to build the query body to be sent to AWS
    ->setFilterExpression('#name = :name')
    ->setExpressionAttributeNames(['#name' => 'author_name'])
    ->setExpressionAttributeValues([':name' => DynamoDb::marshalValue('Bao')])
    // the query body will be sent upon calling this.
    ->scan(); // supports any DynamoDbClient methods (e.g. batchWriteItem, batchGetItem, etc.)
    ->setKeyConditionExpression('#name = :name')
    ->setProjectionExpression('id, author_name')
    // Can set the attribute mapping one by one instead
    ->setExpressionAttributeName('#name', 'author_name')
    ->setExpressionAttributeValue(':name', DynamoDb::marshalValue('Bao'))

    ->setKey(DynamoDb::marshalItem(['id' => 'ae025ed8']))
    ->setUpdateExpression('REMOVE #c, #t')
    ->setExpressionAttributeName('#c', 'comments')
    ->setExpressionAttributeName('#t', 'tags')

    ->setKey(DynamoDb::marshalItem(['id' => 'ae025ed8']))

    ->setItem(DynamoDb::marshalItem(['id' => 'ae025ed8', 'author_name' => 'New Name']))

// Or, instead of ::table()

// Or access the DynamoDbClient instance directly
// pass in the connection name to get a different client instance other than the default.

The query builder methods are in the form of set<key_name>, where <key_name> is the key name of the query body to be sent.

For example, to build an UpdateTable query:

    'AttributeDefinitions' => ...,
    'GlobalSecondaryIndexUpdates' => ...,
    'TableName' => ...


$query = DynamoDb::table('articles')

And when ready:



Laravel ^5.1

Migrate from v1 to v2

Follow these steps:

  1. Update your composer.json to use v2
  2. Run composer update
  3. Run php artisan vendor:publish
  4. Move your DynamoDb config in config/services.php to the new config file config/dynamodb.php as one of the connections
    1. Move key, secret, token inside credentials
    2. Rename local_endpoint to endpoint
    3. Remove local field


Q: Cannot assign id property if its not in the fillable array
A: Try this?

Q: How to create migration?
A: Please see this issue

Q: How to use with factory?
A: Please see this issue

Q: How do I use with Job? Getting a SerializesModels error
A: You can either write your own restoreModel or remove the SerializesModels trait from your Job.

Author and Contributors