amphp/sync

Non-blocking synchronization primitives for PHP based on Amp and Revolt.

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v2.2.0 2024-03-12 01:00 UTC

README

AMPHP is a collection of event-driven libraries for PHP designed with fibers and concurrency in mind. amphp/sync specifically provides synchronization primitives such as locks and semaphores for asynchronous and concurrent programming.

Latest Release MIT License

Installation

This package can be installed as a Composer dependency.

composer require amphp/sync

Usage

The weak link when managing concurrency is humans; so amphp/sync provides abstractions to hide some complexity.

Mutex

Mutual exclusion can be achieved using Amp\Sync\synchronized() and any Mutex implementation, or by manually using the Mutex instance to acquire a Lock.

As long as the resulting Lock object isn't released using Lock::release() or by being garbage collected, the holder of the lock can exclusively run some code as long as all other parties running the same code also acquire a lock before doing so.

function writeExclusively(Amp\Sync\Mutex $mutex, string $filePath, string $data) {
    $lock = $mutex->acquire();
    
    try {
        Amp\File\write($filePath, $data);
    } finally {
        $lock->release();
    }
}
function writeExclusively(Amp\Sync\Mutex $mutex, string $filePath, string $data) {
    Amp\Sync\synchronized($mutex, fn () => Amp\File\write($filePath, $data));
}

Semaphore

Semaphores are another synchronization primitive in addition to mutual exclusion.

Instead of providing exclusive access to a single party, they provide access to a limited set of N parties at the same time. This makes them great to control concurrency, e.g. limiting an HTTP client to X concurrent requests, so the HTTP server doesn't get overwhelmed.

Similar to Mutex, Lock instances can be acquired using Semaphore::acquire(). Please refer to the Mutex documentation for additional usage documentation, as they're basically equivalent except for the fact that Mutex is always a Semaphore with a count of exactly one party.

In many cases you can use amphp/pipeline instead of directly using a Semaphore.

Parcel

A Parcel is used to synchronize access to a value across multiple execution contexts, such as multiple coroutines or multiple processes. The example below demonstrates using a LocalParcel to share an integer between two coroutines.

use Amp\Future;
use Amp\Sync\LocalMutex;
use Amp\Sync\LocalParcel;
use function Amp\async;
use function Amp\delay;

$parcel = new LocalParcel(new LocalMutex(), 42);

$future1 = async(function () use ($parcel): void {
    echo "Coroutine 1 started\n";

    $result = $parcel->synchronized(function (int $value): int {
        delay(1); // Delay for 1s to simulate I/O.
        return $value * 2;
    });

    echo "Value after access in coroutine 1: ", $result, "\n";
});

$future2 = async(function () use ($parcel): void {
    echo "Coroutine 2 started\n";

    $result = $parcel->synchronized(function (int $value): int {
        delay(1); // Delay again in this coroutine.
        return $value + 8;
    });

    echo "Value after access in coroutine 2: ", $result, "\n";
});

Future\await([$future1, $future2]); // Wait until both coroutines complete.

Channels

Channels are used to send data between execution contexts, such as multiple coroutines or multiple processes. The example below shares two Channel between two coroutines. These channels are connected. Data sent on a channel is received on the paired channel and vice-versa.

use Amp\Future;
use function Amp\async;
use function Amp\delay;

[$left, $right] = createChannelPair();

$future1 = async(function () use ($left): void {
    echo "Coroutine 1 started\n";
    delay(1); // Delay to simulate I/O.
    $left->send(42);
    $received = $left->receive();
    echo "Received ", $received, " in coroutine 1\n";
});

$future2 = async(function () use ($right): void {
    echo "Coroutine 2 started\n";
    $received = $right->receive();
    echo "Received ", $received, " in coroutine 2\n";
    delay(1); // Delay to simulate I/O.
    $right->send($received * 2);
});

Future\await([$future1, $future2]); // Wait until both coroutines complete.

Sharing data between processes

To share data between processes in PHP, the data must be serializable and use external storage or an IPC (inter-process communication) channel.

Parcels in external storage

SharedMemoryParcel uses shared memory conjunction with PosixSemaphore wrapped in SemaphoreMutex (though another cross-context mutex implementation may be used, such as RedisMutex in amphp/redis).

Note ext-shmop and ext-sysvmsg are required for SharedMemoryParcel and PosixSemaphore respectively.

amphp/redis provides RedisParcel for storing shared data in Redis.

Channels over pipes

Channels between processes can be created by layering serialization (native PHP serialization, JSON serialization, etc.) on a pipe between those processes.

StreamChannel in amphp/byte-stream creates a channel from any ReadableStream and WritableStream. This allows a channel to be created from a variety of stream sources, such as sockets or process pipes.

ProcessContext in amphp/parallel implements Channel to send data between parent and child processes.

Task Execution objects, also in amphp/parallel contain a Channel to send data between the task run and the process which submitted the task.

Concurrency Approaches

Given you have a list of URLs you want to crawl, let's discuss a few possible approaches. For simplicity, we will assume a fetch function already exists, which takes a URL and returns the HTTP status code (which is everything we want to know for these examples).

Approach 1: Sequential

Simple loop using non-blocking I/O, but no concurrency while fetching the individual URLs; starts the second request as soon as the first completed.

$urls = [...];

$results = [];

foreach ($urls as $url) {
    $results[$url] = fetch($url);
}

var_dump($results);

Approach 2: Everything Concurrently

Almost the same loop, but awaiting all operations at once; starts all requests immediately. Might not be feasible with too many URLs.

$urls = [...];

$results = [];

foreach ($urls as $url) {
    $results[$url] = Amp\async(fetch(...), $url);
}

$results = Amp\Future\await($results);

var_dump($results);

Approach 3: Concurrent Chunks

Splitting the jobs into chunks of ten; all requests within a chunk are made concurrently, but each chunk sequentially, so the timing for each chunk depends on the slowest response; starts the eleventh request as soon as the first ten requests completed.

$urls = [...];

$results = [];

foreach (\array_chunk($urls, 10) as $chunk) {
    $futures = [];

    foreach ($chunk as $url) {
        $futures[$url] = Amp\async(fetch(...), $url);
    }

    $results = \array_merge($results, Amp\Future\await($futures));
}

var_dump($results);

Approach 4: ConcurrentIterator

The amphp/pipeline library provides concurrent iterators which can be used to process and consume data concurrently in multiple fibers.

use Amp\Pipeline\Pipeline;
use function Amp\delay;

$urls = [...];

$results = Pipeline::fromIterable($urls)
    ->concurrent(10) // Process up to 10 URLs concurrently
    ->unordered() // Results may arrive out of order
    ->map(fetch(...)) // Map each URL to fetch(...)
    ->toArray();

var_dump($results);

See the documentation in amphp/pipeline for more information on using Pipelines for concurrency.

Versioning

amphp/sync follows the semver semantic versioning specification like all other amphp packages.

Security

If you discover any security related issues, please use the private security issue reporter instead of using the public issue tracker.

License

The MIT License (MIT). Please see LICENSE for more information.