timnarr/kirby-imagex

Modern images for Kirby CMS – This plugin helps you orchestrate modern, responsive and performant images in Kirby

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Type:kirby-plugin

0.1.1 2024-02-12 20:47 UTC

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Last update: 2024-04-07 03:01:46 UTC


README

Kirby Imagex Banner

Kirby Imagex

Modern Images for Kirby CMS – This plugin helps you orchestrate modern, responsive and performant images in Kirby.

Features

  • 🌠 Dynamic generation of image srcsets for art-directed or media-condition-based images.
  • 📐 Helps you easily change the aspect ratio without the need to define new srcset presets.
  • 😴 Supports native lazy loading and is customizable for JavaScript lazy loading libraries.
  • 🚀 Improve the performance of your critical LCP (Largest Contentful Paint) images, utilizing Priority Hints.
  • ⚡️ Supports multiple modern image formats, like avif and webp.
  • 🧩 Can easily be integrated into existing blocks/projects.
  • 🪄 Uses only Kirby's core capabilities for image handling.

Getting Started

Four steps to get Imagex running:

  1. Install via Composer
  2. Set up Imagex global plugin config
  3. Adjust Kirby's thumbs config and add srcset presets
  4. Add a snippet where you configure and pass options to the Imagex snippet

Examples for Different Configurations and HTML Output

You'll find all examples in the examples.md.

Installation via Composer

composer require timnarr/kirby-imagex

Global Configuration

Configure global settings in your config.php file:

return [
  'timnarr.imagex' => [
    'cache' => true,
    'customLazyloading' => false,
    'formats' => ['avif', 'webp'],
    'includeInitialFormat' => false,
    'noSrcsetInImg' => false,
    'relativeUrls' => false,
  ],
];
Option Default Type Description
cache true Boolean Imagex will cache some calculations. Read more about it here: "Cache"
customLazyloading false Boolean Imagex will initially use native lazy loading with the loading attribute. You can enable this option if you want to use a custom lazy loading library like lazysizes or any other JS-based solution. Imagex automatically use data-src and data-srcset if this is option is active. If you need something like data-sizes="auto" please use the snippet config to add it as a lazy HTML attribute.
formats ['avif', 'webp'] Array with Strings Define the modern file formats you want to use. ⚠️ Order matters here! You should go from the most to less modern format. The order in this array also affects the formatSizeHandling snippet-option. Read more about why the correct order is important. You shouldn't add the initial image format like png or jpeg here.
includeInitialFormat false Boolean If active the format of the uploaded image (normally jpeg or png) will be treated as a modern format, which means Imagex will create <source> tags for it. This is especially useful when you can't use modern formats, but want to use art directed images.
noSrcsetInImg false Boolean If active this will only output src with the smallest size from the given srcset-preset and the srcset attribute is omitted.
relativeUrls false Boolean Output relative image URLs everywhere when active.

Adjust Kirby's Thumbs Config and Add Srcset Presets

The srcset configuration is still set up as you know it from Kirby, like described here.

Set your srcset preset, like my-srcset and just define the width and other configs here. I leave out the height in my settings and only define the width. This makes working with images easier and more predictable, because it allows you to quickly and easily change the ratio of a image component or add a new ratio without having to create a new srcset preset to your config. The height is later calulated by Imagex based on the ratio. This first srcset preset is used for jpeg or png images.

// config.php
'thumbs' => [
  'srcsets' => [
    'my-srcset' => [
      '400w'  => ['width' =>  400, 'crop' => true, 'quality' => 80],
      '800w'  => ['width' =>  800, 'crop' => true, 'quality' => 80],
      '1200w' => ['width' => 1200, 'crop' => true, 'quality' => 80],
    ],
    // other srcset definitions

If you use avif and/or webp, you must have a separate srcset preset for these formats. Copy the preset and append -{format} to the name and then set the format and other options for this preset. This is necessary to have full control and to define different quality values or other options for each modern format.

The quality settings for the modern formats cannot simply be taken from the initial preset. To really benefit from smaller image files due to modern formats, you should slightly adjust your quality settings. My rule of thumb is to subtract 5 from the jpeg/png quality for webp and to substract 15 for avif. Here is a good read with more detail, but I've also found that this isn't completely applicable to images in Kirby.

// config.php
'thumbs' => [
  'srcsets' => [
    'my-srcset' => [ // preset for jpeg and png
      '400w'  => ['width' =>  400, 'crop' => true, 'quality' => 80],
      '800w'  => ['width' =>  800, 'crop' => true, 'quality' => 80],
      '1200w' => ['width' => 1200, 'crop' => true, 'quality' => 80],
    ],
    'my-srcset-webp' => [ // preset for webp
      '400w'  => ['width' =>  400, 'crop' => true, 'quality' => 75, 'format' => 'webp', 'sharpen' => 10],
      '800w'  => ['width' =>  800, 'crop' => true, 'quality' => 75, 'format' => 'webp', 'sharpen' => 10],
      '1200w' => ['width' => 1200, 'crop' => true, 'quality' => 75, 'format' => 'webp', 'sharpen' => 10],
    ],
    'my-srcset-avif' => [ // preset for avif
      '400w'  => ['width' =>  400, 'crop' => true, 'quality' => 65, 'format' => 'avif', 'sharpen' => 25],
      '800w'  => ['width' =>  800, 'crop' => true, 'quality' => 65, 'format' => 'avif', 'sharpen' => 25],
      '1200w' => ['width' => 1200, 'crop' => true, 'quality' => 65, 'format' => 'avif', 'sharpen' => 25],
    ],
    // other srcset definitions

Snippet Configuration and Usage

Pass the file object of your image and other options to the Imagex snippet as follows:

// Define your options and pass them to the `imagex` snippet
<?php
$options = [
  'image' => $image->toFile(),
  'imgAttributes' => [
    'shared' => [
      'class' => 'my-image',
      'decoding' => 'async',
      'style' => ['background: red;'],
      'sizes' => '100vw',
    ],
  ],
  'ratio' => '16/9',
  'srcsetName' => 'my-srcset',
  'critical' => false,
];
?>

<?php snippet('imagex-picture', $options) ?>

Imagex outputs a <picture> element with multiple <source> elements and one <img>. If you need extra HTML you can wrap the Imagex snippet accordingly. Handle svg or gif files differently as needed!

<?php

$options = [
  'image' => $image->toFile(),
  // ... other imagex options
];

?>

<figure>
  <?php if ($image->extension() === 'svg' || $image->extension() === 'gif'): ?>
    <?php snippet('svg-gif-image') ?> // handle svg and gif files differently
  <?php else: ?>
    <?php snippet('imagex-picture', $options) ?>
  <?php endif; ?>
  <figcaption>Lorem ipsum</figcaption>
</figure>

Snippet Options

You can choose from many options to customize your images and pass them to the Imagex snippet. At first it might look heavy, but it's just very flexible and actually only image is required and everything else can be omitted, while Imagex is providing some sane defaults.

For each HTML element of the picture element you can add attributes, like CSS classes, inline-styles, data-attributes and so on. You only need to add your attributes to one of these three attribute categories, I call them loading modes: shared, eager and lazy. shared is for attributes that should exists always, no matter what loading mode the image is. If you have attributes that should only be used in eager or lazy loading mode you can add them to one of it. Imagex will merge the shared attributes with the attributes of the current loading mode automatically. The attributes of the non-applicable loading mode will have no effect then.

Option Default Type Description
image File-Object Required. Your initial image. Be sure to return a file object here: $field->toFile().
pictureAttributes ['shared' => [], 'eager' => [], 'lazy' => []] Array HTML attributes added to <picture>. Set shared attributes regardless of the loading mode. Extend shared attributes for a specific loading mode by setting eager and lazy.
imgAttributes ['shared' => [], 'eager' => [], 'lazy' => []] Array HTML attributes added to <img>. Set shared attributes regardless of the loading mode. Extend shared attributes for a specific loading mode by setting eager and lazy.
srcsetName 'default' String Name of the srcset preset, configured in Kirby's config.
critical false Boolean With this flag you can switch between eager and lazy. A critical image is placed "above-the-fold" and should be loaded in eager mode. If critical is true Imagex disables lazy loading and set fetchpriority="high" to the image. You can add your logic here to determine if an image is critical, for example: Let the editor choose in the panel by adding a toggle field or query the index of your image blocks and set critical to true if it's in your first two blocks. Or just set it to true if you know a specific image-block is only used above the fold.
ratio 'intrinsic' String Set the desired aspect ratio here for not art-directed-images which is used for the thumbs in your <img> src and srcset and for non art directed sources or let the editor choose from a set of predefined ratios from the panel. Can be omitted, default is intrinsic, which means the ratio of the source-image is used.
sourcesAttributes ['shared' => [], 'eager' => [], 'lazy' => []] Array HTML attributes added to non-art-directed <source> elements. Set shared attributes regardless of the loading mode. Extend shared attributes for a specific loading mode by setting eager and lazy.
sourcesArtDirected [] Array Order matters here! Browsers will use the first matching <source> element they will find. Order your length-based media queries from large to small. You can change the ratio of the initial image if a media condition matches or use a complete different image and load it if a media condition matches. Again you can add a attributes array to each art-directed source with shared, eager and lazy attributes to change the HTML attributes for the different loading modes
formatSizeHandling false Boolean In some cases avif files can be larger than webp. If this option is set to true, it enables a dynamic size comparison between the specified image formats. ⚠️ Again: The formats order in config.php matters here! 🚧 This feature is currently pretty basic - Read more about it here.
<?php
$options = [
  'image' => $image,
  'pictureAttributes' => [
    'shared' => [
      'class' => 'my-picture-class',
      'data-attr' => 'my-picture-attribute'
    ],
    'eager' => [
      // extend `shared` attributes in eager loading mode
      'class' => 'my-picture-class--eager'
    ],
    'lazy' => [
      // extend `shared` attributes in lazy loading mode
      'class' => 'my-picture-class--lazy js-image'
    ],
  ],
  'imgAttributes' => [
    'shared' => [
      'class' => [
        'my-image-class',
        $setThisClassWhenTrue ? 'optional-class' : null
      ],
      'alt' => $image->alt(),
      'style' => ['background-color: red;', 'object-fit: cover;', 'object-position: ' . $image->focus() . ';'],
      'data-attr' => 'my-img-attribute',
      'sizes' => '760px',
    ],
    'eager' => [
      // extend `shared` attributes in eager loading mode
    ],
    'lazy' => [
      // extend `shared` attributes in lazy loading mode
    ],
    // Do not add `src`, `srcset` or `loading` or their equivalents for lazy loading (like `data-src`) here.
    // These attributes are handled automatically by Imagex and adding them here will throw an exception.
  ],
  'srcsetName' => 'my-srcset',
  'critical' => $isCritical ?? false,
  'ratio' => '1/1',
  'sourcesArtDirected' => [
    ['ratio' => '21/9', 'media' => '(min-width: 1200px)']
    ['media' => '(min-width: 820px)', 'image' => $artDirectedImage]
    ['ratio' => '16/9', 'media' => '(prefers-color-scheme: dark)', 'image' => $darkModeImage]
    ['ratio' => '21/9', 'media' => '(orientation: landscape)', 'attributes' => ['shared' => ['attribute' => 'value'], 'eager' => [], 'lazy' => []]]
  ],
];

// Pass your options to the Imagex snippet
<?php snippet('imagex-picture', $options) ?>

Cache

Imagex will do some simple calculations per image, like calculating the height by the given width and ratio. Basically Imagex get the srcset definition from the config file, calculate and set the height and output the final config. The result will be cached to reduce unnecessary calculations when you use the same combination of srcset-preset and ratio for other images.

Performance Improvements for Critical Images

Imagex provides features like Priority Hints for improving the loading times of critical images.

With Priority Hints

Imagex will set the priority hint fetchpriority="high" to critical images to get the browser to load it sooner. Imagex set this by default if you pass 'critical' => true to the Imagex snippet. Read more about fetchpriority here.

Why Order Matters?

Format Order and Media Attribute

The order of <source> elements in a <picture> element is essential, as browsers select the first matching source based on supported formats and media conditions. Modern formats like avif should be listed first, falling back to formats like webp or jpeg. Imagex will follow the order of the formats defined in the config and you should go from the most to less modern format: 'formats' => ['avif', 'webp'].

The media attribute is also important for responsive designs or art directed images. With the media attribute you can specify the conditions under which each source should be used. This is important if you want to switch the ratio or the complete image at a specific media condition. You have to take care about the ordering of your sources array in the plugin options that you pass to the Imagex snippet. Imagex will create for each format all defined sources.

Dynamic Format Size Handling

In some cases avif files can be larger than webp and you end up sending more HTML and also larger files to the user. If formatSizeHandling is set to true, this option enables a dynamic size comparison between the specified image formats. The comparison is based on the order of the formats listed in the format array of your configuration. With the default formats array, this option checks whether avif is smaller than webp and only outputs or creates files for avif if it's smaller. So again the order of your formats array matters for this feature. The size comparions is currently very basic and Imagex will only generate the middle item of your passed srcset preset and compare it's size with the next format. If the the more modern format will have a larger file the rest of the srcset preset is not generated and is also omitted in the HTML output.

🚧 This feature is currently pretty basic. It only generates the middle item / width from the given srcset preset and check if the file size is smaller than the next less modern format. And currently this is only done for the initial image and not for the images of art directed sources.

Roadmap

  • Add tests for Imagex class
  • Use Preload Resource Hints?! See feature-branch
  • Improved determination of the smallest format, when using formatSizeHandling
  • Improve formatSizeHandling in combination with art-directed images

License

MIT License Copyright © 2024-present Tim Narr