A ORM/ODM with models decoupled from the database

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dev-master 2019-10-25 23:44 UTC

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Last update: 2022-11-26 06:25:49 UTC


README

phpDM is a model-first ORM/ODM. Currently supporting MySQL and MongoDB out of the box, it draws heavily from Laravel's Eloquent.

Unlike Eloquent most other ORMs/ODMs, phpDM starts with creating a model class representing a table and it's fields. Definitions are attached to each field, and every time a model is retrieved or saved, data is validated against those types. This means it's focused around your code, and allows you to switch databases with ease. You're not organizing for MySQL columns or Mongo fields, you're setting up PHP data, and phpDM interfaces with your database appropriately.

Basic usage

This project currently supports MySQL and MongoDB.

First, create a connection with the ConnectionManager.

MySQL:

\phpDM\Connections\ConnectionManager::addConnection(
	[
		'type' => 'mysql',
		'hostname' => 'localhost',
		'database' => 'yourdb',
		'username' => 'username',
		'password' => 'password'
	]
);

MongoDB:

\phpDM\Connections\ConnectionManager::addConnection(
	[
		'type' => 'mysql',
		'database' => 'yourdb',
	]
);

The addConnection method also takes a second optional parameter, name, through which you can name your connection, in case you'd like to directly reference the connection later on (such as using multiple databases of the same type).

Next, create a model class which extends off the appropriate Model base.

  • MySQL => MysqlModel
  • MongoDB => MongoModel

The minimum necessary field to retrieve data is $fields, which will define the fields to populate your model and what type they must be.

class User extends \phpDM\Models\MysqlModel
{

	protected static $fields = [
		'userID' => 'int',
		'username' => 'string',
		'password' => 'string',
		'joinDate' => 'timestamp'
	];

}

The following field types are available:

  • int/integer
  • float
  • bool/boolean
  • str/string
  • timestamp - uses Carbon to extend DateTime
  • array() - accepts an array of the type within the parenthesis, ex. array(string)
  • object:\Models\User - accepts a class (with namespace) after the colon, to be used as an embedded object. If you're looking to embed objects that are only being used to model that embedded data, you should use the GenericModel class. If you intend on using the class independently, the class must be a phpDM Model of the same type as the model embedding it. In MySQL, this is converted to JSON on save.

While not strictly necessary, its important to define theEmterrizzi84@gmail.com primary key:

static protected $primaryKey = 'id';

By default, phpDB will search for the plural, snake case version of your model's class name as it's table. It requires following PSR-1 class naming conventions. For example, a model UserRole will use the table user_roles. If you'd like to use a different table, add the $table field.

protected static $table = 'user_admin_roles';

If you prefer to use camel case, you can pass an array with the key of options when adding a connection, with a case key with the value of 'camel'. phpDM will now use a pluralized version of your model's class name, with a lower-cased first letter.

'options' => ['case' => 'camel']

MongoDB models can also use $collection.

Special types

Generic embedded object

If you'd like to embed an object but don't need a full model for it, you can use the verbose type format:

protected static $fields = [
    'user' => [
        'type' => 'object',
        'fields' => [
            'userId' => 'int',
            'username' => 'str'
        ]
    ]
];

The inner fields element is populated the same as the static $fields property. You can have objects embedded within objects.

If you'd prefer to keep the object separate or create an array of objects, you can create a model extending from GenericModel. It functions the same as a model created through the verbose format shown above.

Special timestamps

There are 3 special timestamps included

  • createdTimestamp - This field is auto-populated with the current timestamp when a model is created.
  • updatedTimestamp - This field is auto-populated when the current timestamp when a model is updated
  • deletedTimestamp - This field is used for soft deletes and is auto-populated with the current timestamp when a model is deleted

Retriving a single record

The find method will retrieve a single record of a model, using the defined primary key.

User::find(1)

This will retrieve the values where the primary key is equal to 1 and populate and return a User object.

Retriving multiple records

To get back multiple results, use the get method.

User::get()

This will return populated User objects of all entries in the users table.

Conditions

You can add conditions with the where, orWhere, or whereIn methods.

The where and orWhere methods can take either 2 parameters:

where('username', 'rohit')

which checks where the values are equivilent, or you may put a comparitor in the second parameter:

where('votes`, '>=', 30)

The where and orWhere methods will also accept a function to create prioritized conditions (such as using parenthesis in MySQL):

where(function ($query) {
	return $query->where('role', null)->orWhere('active', 0);
});

The whereIn method takes 2 parameters, a field and an array of values:

whereIn('username', ['rohit', 'rsodhia'])

Chain your conditions with get to retrieve values.

Any query builder methods started staticly off a model return a query builder instance, and thus are chained directly thereon:

User::where('username', 'rohit')->orWhere('active', '!=', 0)->get()

Sorting

To add sorting, simply chain the sort function onto the Query Builder. The first parameter is the field to sort on, the second is the direction to sort on (asc for ascending or desc for descending). The default direction is ascending.

sort('registeredOn', 'desc');

To sort on multiple fields, chain multile sort functions together.

Limiting

To retrieve a limited number of rows, you can use the limit method, simply passing it an integer greater than zero. You can also skip entries using skip, passing it an integer greater than zero.

You can do both together using paginate. Paginate takes two values, first the number of entries you want returned, second the page number, starting with 1.

paginate(20, 1)

will retrieve entries 0-19.

paginate(20, 2)

will retrieve entries 20-39.

Saving data

Whether creating a new database entry or updating an existing row, use the save method. Called on an instance of a model, it will check for any data that has been changed and save that data to the database. If there is no primary key, it will attempt to insert a new entry; if there is a primary key, it will attempt to update an entry. If the databse allows it, it will return the number of affected rows on success, or false on failure.

$user = new User();
$user->username = 'rohit';
$user->save();

This will insert a new entry with the username 'rohit'.

$user = User::find(1);
$user->email = 'test@test.com';
$user->save();

As this will retrieve the entry with the id '1', it will update the email and update the database.

In MySQL, values of type array or object will be converted to json for storage.

Deleting

To delete a query, simply call remove on a model.

User::where('userId', 4)->remove()

If the model has a deletedTimestamp field, the field will be updated to the current time and the retrival functions (first, find, and get) won't retrieve the model(s). If there is no deletedTimestamp field, it will be removed from the database.

Empty query

In case you want to start a model query but don't yet have a method to chain, you can call query.

$queryBuilder = User::query();

This can be chained to as any other query builder method later.