j0hnys/trident-typed

Improvements to PHP's type system in userland: generics, typed lists, tuples and structs

v0.1.0.0 2019-08-09 18:35 UTC

This package is auto-updated.

Last update: 2021-11-10 00:24:28 UTC


README

This package is a mere proof of concept about what's possible in PHP's userland to improve type checking. It adds support for type inference, generics, union types, typed lists, tuples and structs. Because all is done in userland, there are limitations on what syntax is possible.

Installation

You can install the package via composer:

composer require j0hnys/trident-typed

Usage

Type inference

Both collections, tuples and structs support inferred types. This means that all examples are also possible, without manually specifying types. For example:

// This collection will only allow objects of type `Post` in it.
$postCollection = new Collection([new Post()]);

// This tuple will keep its signature of (Point, Point).
$vector = new Tuple(new Point(30, 5), new Point(120, 0));

// This struct's fields are autmoatically type checked.
$struct = [
    'foo' => new Post(),
    'bar' => function () {
        // ...
    },
];

The following examples all show the manual type configuration. There are some cases where type inference falls short, and you have to fall back on manually defining them. You might also prefer the manual approach, for clarity's sake.

Note that type may be partially inferred. Some fields in tuples or structs may be type definitions, others may be real values. Uninitialised types will throw an error on read.

Typed lists and collections:

$list = new Collection(T::bool());

$list[] = new Post(); // TypeError

It's possible to directly initialise a collection with data after construction.

$list = (new Collection(T::string()))->set(['a', 'b', 'c']);

This package also provides some predefined lists, as shortcuts.

$list = new IntegerList([1, 4]);

$list[] = 'a'; // TypeError

Maps:

$map = new Map(T::string(),T::integer());

$map['name'] = 1;

$map[] = new Post(); // TypeError
$map[] = 1; // TypeError

It's possible to directly initialise a collection with data after construction.

$map = (new Map(T::string(),T::integer()))->set(['a'=>2]);

Generics:

Generic types wrap around classes, allowing you to not creating a custom type for every class.

$postList = new Collection(T::generic(Post::class));

$postList[] = 1; // TypeError

Tuples:

$point = new Tuple(T::float(), T::float());

$point[0] = 1.5;
$point[1] = 3;

$point[0] = 'a'; // TypeError
$point['a'] = 1; // TypeError
$point[10] = 1; // TypeError

Like lists, a tuple can also be given some data after construction with the set function.

$tuple = (new Tuple(T::string(), T::array()))->set('abc', []);

Structs:

$developer = new Struct([
    'name' => T::string(),
    'age' => T::int(),
    'second_name' => T::nullable(T::string()),
]);

$developer['name'] = 'Brent';
$developer['second_name'] = 'John';

$developer->set([
    'name' => 'BrenDt',
    'age' => 23,
    'second_name' => null,
]);

echo $developer->age;

$developer->name = 'Brent';

$developer->age = 'abc' // TypeError
$developer->somethingElse = 'abc' // TypeError

Nullable type

A nullable type can be defined in two, functionally identical, ways:

$list1 = new Collection(T::int()->nullable());

$list2 = new Collection(T::nullable(T::int()));

Union Type

A union type means a collection of multiple types.

$list = new Collection(T::union(T::int(), T::float()));

$list[] = 1;
$list[] = 1.1;

$list[] = 'abc'; // TypeError

Union types may also be nullable and contain generics.

What's not included:

  • Proper syntax.
  • IDE auto completion for generic types.
  • Prevention of type casting between scalar types.
  • Type hint generics in functions.

Creating your own types

The GenericType or T::generic() can be used to create structures of that type. It is, however, also possible to create your own types without generics. Let's take the example of Post. The generic approach works without adding custom types.

$postList = new Collection(T::generic(Post::class));

$postList[] = new Post();
$postList[] = 1; // TypeError 

The generic part can be skipped if you create your own type.

use J0hnys\Typed\Type;
use J0hnys\Typed\Types\Nullable;

class PostType implements Type
{
    use Nullable;
    
    public function validate($post): Post
    {
        return $post;
    }
}

Now you can use PostType directly:

$postList = new Collection(new PostType());

You're also free to extend the T helper.

class T extends J0hnys\Typed\T
{
    public static function post(): PostType
    {
        return new PostType();
    }
}

// ...

$postList = new Collection(T::post());

The Nullable trait adds the following simple snippet, so that the type can be made nullable when used.

public function nullable(): NullType
{
    return new NullType($this);
}

Note: It's recommended to also implement __toString in your own type classes.

Extending data structures

You're free to extend the existing data structures. For example, you could make shorthand tuples like so:

class Coordinates extends Tuple
{
    public function __construct(int $x, int $y)
    {
        parent::__construct(T::int(), T::int());

        $this[0] = $x;
        $this[1] = $y;
    }
}