amegatron/cryptoapi

Provides classes for implementing encrypted API with the client software

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Language: PHP

v1.0.4 2014-05-25 09:18 UTC

README

Provides classes for implementing encrypted interaction with client applications

Imagine you have a client application, written in C# e.g., which needs secure (encrypted) interaction with server API.

This is where CryptoApi can help.

Cryptography basics

I'll start from saying that I'm not good at cryptography, but I understand the basics which helped me in writing this package.

How should encrypted interaction be implemented?

The algorithm is based on two cryptography algorithms: symmetric and asymmetric. In this case AES is used for symmetric, and RSA is used for asymmetric. If you don't know what does that mean - you should Google :) There are a lot of articles on this topic over Internet.

  1. First, the server has its private key. The client has its corresponding public key (or certificate)
  2. The client generates a random session key for symmmetric algorithm.
  3. Then the client encrypts this key with asymmetric algo and sends to the server.
  4. The server receives the key, and responds to client with either OK or ERROR, telling that it succeedeed or not in receiving the key. The server also stores this key in session for future communication with client.
  5. Later, any data sent by client to server, is encrypted with symmetric algo using that generated key.
  6. All responses from server to client is also encrypted with symmetric algo, but also is signed using server private key, so that client could verify, that data actually came from the intended server.

Server-side implementation

Package installation

Add the following to composer.json of your Laravel project in the "require" section: "amegatron/cryptoapi": "1.0.*"

After that run composer update in console and ensure the packaged has been downloaded.

In case you are using rtablada/package-installer you can run php artisan package:install amegatron/cryptoapi to automatically add package's Service Provider to application config.

If you don't use the above package, you should register the Service Provider manually. To do so, add the following element in your "providers" section of app/config/app.php: 'Amegatron\Cryptoapi\CryptoapiServiceProvider',

Also you must "regster" an outgoing encryption filter, provided by the package. Add the following in app/filters.php:

Route::filter('cryptOut', 'Amegatron\Cryptoapi\Filters\OutgoingCryptFilter');

Generating key-pair

Next, you need to generate a key-pair for asymmetric encryption. To do so, run the following command in console: php artisan cryptoapi:generatekeys

By default, two files will be created in app/keys folder: private.key and public.crt. public.crt is only needed by the client, so it may be deleted after you've embedded it in your client software. But private.key should be kept secure. As your server is pointing to public folder of your web-site, this file is not accessible over internet. And it should not be. never. Keep this file a secret. Nobody should now this key except your server.

By defalt, key size is 1024, but you can override the default value by specifying --keySize=XXXX option to the above artisan command. But 1024 is pretty enough for most cases. Also, I didn't manage to generate 2048-size key -- it took too long time for me and I cancelled the process :)

Implementing server-side API

Now everything is ready for writing your API.

For simplicity, I'll sugest all server API logic will be within a single controller, called ApiController. So, create ApiController.php in app/controllers and create a route for it in app/routes.php:

Route::controller('api', 'ApiController');

As you may have guessed, all our encrypted interaction will be directed to http://youdomain.com/api.

Now, let's start implementing the controller.

Initialization

First, we will need to implemtnt points 3 and 4 from the alogithm, listed at the beginning. The key for AES algorithm consists of two parts: key and iv. Both should be sent to /api/init using POST for example.

For this I suggest the following code:

public function postInit() {
    if (!(Input::has('key') && Input::has('iv'))) {
        return 'ERROR 1';
    }

    $crypt = App::make('CryptographyInterface');

    extract(Input::only('key', 'iv'));
    $key = $crypt->asymmetricDecrypt($key);
    $iv = $crypt->asymmetricDecrypt($iv);

    if (!($key && $iv)) {
        return 'ERROR 2';
    }

    $crypt->initSymmetric(array(
        'key'   => $key,
        'iv'    => $iv,
    ));

    return 'OK';
}

What should be noted here? First, creation of $crpyt object through Laravel IoC. Currently, it creates Amegatron\Cryptoapi\Cryptography\RsaAesCryptography object which implements an interface Amegatron\Cryptoapi\Cryptography\CryptographyIterface. This object contains all methods we will need for encryption, decryption and signing.

Second, is the initialization of symmetric "driver" ($crypt->initSymmetric(...);). It will store the AES key in the session for further use.

Also note that responses from /api/init are not encrypted (for the case if this initialization fails). Also, response messages are not "speaking". The client should know what does e.g. "ERROR 1" means. This is done for not telling the possible hacker the internals of the API.

And lastly, if the following code suites you, you may just use pre-made trait for this, Amegatron\Cryptoapi\Traits\RsaAesControllerTrait which already has this postInit method.

use Amegatron\Cryptoapi\Traits\RsaAesControllerTrait;

Or if you are too lazy or your IDE does not insert the full name of the Trait automatically, you can just

use RsaAesControllerTrait;

The alias for the trait is registered in the package Service Provider.

Application-specific API

For demonstrating purposes, let's assume that purpose of our server application is to validate client's licenses: the client sends a license key to server, and the server responses, telling, whether this license key is valid and further use of client software is allowed.

Before we continue coding, I should remind, that all data comming from the client is encrypted (using AES). For the purpose of convinient decrypting incoming data, I implemented DecryptedInput Facade, which is almost the same as Laravel's Input Facade except that it allows to get decrypted values from the request. You do not have to worry about adding an alias to DecryptedInput - it is added automatically in the package Server Provider for you.

Lets create a method for api/checklicense route:

public function postChecklicense() {

    $licenseKey = DecryptedInput::get('licenseKey');

    // Perform some logic to determine whether the received license key is valid or has not expired for example
    // Most probably retreiving this info from database.
    $licenseIsValid     = true;
    $licenseExpiresAt   = '2014-12-31 23:59:59';

    $response = array(
        'isValid'   => $licenseIsValid,
        'liceseExpiresAt'   => $licenseExpiresAt;
    );

    return json_encode($response);
}

Note that postChecklicense does not bother on encrypting outgoing data. For this we will use premade cryptOut filter, mentioned earlier. For this, let's create a constructor for our api controller:

public function __construct() {
    $this->afterFilter(
        'cryptOut',
        array(
            'except'   => array('postInit'),
        )
    );
}

cryptOut filter does two things: first, it encrypts the outgoing data; secondly, it signs the data. Summarizing, it sends ot the client JSON-encoded object with two fields: 1. data - encrypted data 2. sign - the signature of encrypted data

Note also, that this filter is applied to all controller methods except postInit as I stated earlier - the output of this method should not be encrypted.

See Amegatron\Cryptoapi\Filters\OutgoingCryptFilter.php if you are curious about how it does encryption and signing.

Client-side example

Here is a C# example of client: https://github.com/Amegatron/CryptoApiExample

Testing your CryptoApi

You can test CryptoApi using CodeCeption. I have provided a demo test, which tests a simple "echo" api method: the test sends encrypted message to server and expects to receive it in response, also encrypted and signed.

To run this test you need to to the following:

Prerequisites

You need to add the following to your composer.json:

    "require-dev": {
        "codeception/codeception": "1.8.5",
        "guzzle/plugin": "3.9.1"
    },

After that run composer update command in console. This will install CodeCeption itself and additionally guzzle/plugin, which is needed for tests.

Server API

Make sure you have an ApiController as described earlier. For this test this controller must have two methods: postInit and postTestEcho. For this you may simply use pre-made Traits:

class ApiController extends BaseController {

    use \Amegatron\Cryptoapi\Traits\RsaAesControllerTrait;
    use \Amegatron\Cryptoapi\Traits\TestsControllerTrait;

}

Also make sure you have a corresponding api route to this controller and also a cryptOut filter (as described earlier).

Keys

If you haven't done it already, generate a key-pair: php artisan cryptoapi:generatekeys.

Running the test

Starting the server

First make sure you are the root folder of yout project (where composer.json and artisan lie).

After that start the server: php artisan serve &. It will start the server on port 8000. It may take a while, just wait for the message saying the server has started.

The test

Now cd to the package directory: cd vendor/amegatron/cryptoapi.

Now you can run the test. Execute the following command: ../..bin/codecapt run and wait until it finishes.

If you did everything correctly, you should see green message at the end:

OK (1 test, 6 assertions)

Making your own tests

If you are new to CodeCeption, visit its official website: http://codeception.com/

For now I can't provide any kind of API for using in tests, but you should investigate existing test tests/cryptoapi/CheckEchoCept.php and a helper class it uses: tests/_helpers/CryptoApiHelper.php. There you can find the implementation of cryptographic algorithms used by the test using phpseclib, which comes with Laravel out of the box.